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Module 2sy00127_

A Question of Health
The greatest wealth is health. 

Virgil


  1. Read the text and find out what factors have an impact on our health.


The Determinants of Health
Many factors combine together to affect the health of individuals and communities. Whether people are healthy or not, is determined by their circumstances and environment. To a large extent, factors such as where we live, the state of environment, genetics, our income and education level, and our relationships with friends and family all have considerable impacts on health, whereas the more commonly considered factors such as access and use of health care services often have less of an impact.

Individuals are unlikely to be able to directly control many of the determinants of health. These determinants – or things that make people healthy or not – include the above factors, and many others:

  • Income and social status – higher income and social status are linked to better health. The greater the gap between the richest and the poorest people, the greater the difference in health.

  • Education – low education levels are linked with poor health, more stress and lower self-confidence.

  • Physical environment – safe water and clean air, healthy workplaces, safe houses, communities and roads all contribute to good health.

  • Employment and working conditions – people in employment are healthier.

  • Social support networks – greater support from families, friends and communities is linked to better health.

  • Culture – customs and traditions, and the beliefs of the family and community all affect health.

  • Genetics – inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan, healthiness and developing certain illnesses.

  • Personal behaviour – balanced eating, keeping active, smoking, drinking, and how we deal with life’s stresses and challenges all affect health.

  • Health services – access and use of services that prevent and treat disease influences health.

  • Gender – men and women suffer from different types of diseases at different ages.




  1. Match the collocations from the text in the columns below.




  • deal with

  • prevent and treat

  • have less

  • contribute

  • higher income and social status

  • access and use

  • social support

  • to affect

  • people

  • to be determined

  • have considerable

  • commonly considered

  • working

  • inheritance plays a part

  • suffer from different types of diseases

  • to good health

  • of an impact

  • conditions

  • in employment

  • in determining lifespan

  • are linked to better health

  • at different ages

  • life’s stresses and challenges

  • by the circumstances and environment

  • impacts on health

  • networks

  • of health care services

  • the health of individuals

  • factors

  • disease




  • 3. Search the text above for the English equivalents to the following phrases.




  • тривалість життя;

  • умови праці;

  • система соціального захисту;

  • спадковість;

  • прибуток;

  • значною мірою;

  • в той час , як;

  • загально прийнятий;

  • стан довкілля;

  • робити внесок;

  • впоратися зі стресом і життєвими труднощами;

  • доступ до медичного обслуговування;




  • ^ 4. Translate the following sentences using the vocabulary from the text above.




    1. Нормальні умови праці значною мірою впливають на здоров'я людей.

    2. Тривалість життя визначається умовами існування і оточуючим середовищем людей.

    3. Низький рівень освіти пов'язаний з поганим здоров'ям і низькою самооцінкою.

    4. Спадковість впливає на розвиток певних хвороб і в різному віці люди страждають від різних хвороб.

    5. Особиста поведінка справляє значний вплив на здоров'я, в той час, як більш загально прийняті фактори, як-от доступ і використання медичного обслуговування, часто мають менший вплив.

    6. Вищі прибутки і соціальний статус пов'язані з кращим здоров'ям працюючих людей і суспільства.

    7. Краще попередити хворобу, ніж її лікувати

    8. Система соціального захисту іноді допомагає впоратися зі стресом і життєвими труднощами.

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5. Study the following words and collocations.


^ WORD CHOICE
illness disease disorder infection condition ailment bug malaise malady
Illness and disease are often used in the same way and are equally common in spoken English. However, illness is more often used to refer to the length of time or state of being unwell: e.g. He died after a long illness. He is off school because of illness!

Do not use illness to talk about less serious problems such as headaches or colds.

Disease is a particular kind of illness with special symptoms and name, especially one that spreads from one person to another or affects a particular part of your body: e.g. infectious diseases; heart disease

Disease can also be used to mean a lot of different diseases: e.g. Cigarette smoking causes death and disease.

Disorder (rather formal) is an illness that causes a part of the body to stop functioning correctly: e.g. a rare disorder of the liver; digestive disorder; neurotic disorder. A disorder is generally not infectious. Disorder occurs most frequently with words relating to mental problems, for example psychiatric, personality, mental and eating. When it is used to talk about physical problems, it most often occurs with blood, bowel and kidney, and these are commonly serious, severe or rare.

Infection is an illness that is caused by bacteria or a virus and that affects one part of the body: e.g. a throat infection

Condition is a medical problem that you have for a long time because it is not possible to cure it: e.g. a heart condition; a liver condition.

Ailment (rather formal) is an illness that is not very serious: e.g. childhood ailments

Bug (informal) is an infectious illness that is usually fairly mild: e.g. a nasty flu bug

Malaise is a general feeling of being ill | sick, unhappy or not satisfied, without signs of any particular problem SYN  unease: a serious malaise among the staff.

Malady is a lasting or chronic illness. It is more dangerous than disease, sometimes a fatal one.

Study the collocations:

(a) bowel | heart | liver | respiratory disease | disorder | condition

a mental | psychiatric | psychological illness | disorder | condition

to have | suffer from a(n) disease | illness | disorder | infection | condition | ailment | bug

to catch | contract | get | pick up a(n) disease | illness | infection | bug

to carry | pass on | spread | transmit a(n) disease | illness | infection
COLLOCATIONS with Disease

  • have|suffer from a disease

  • heart|liver|brain etc disease

  • a disease of the brain|stomach etc

  • a disease spreads|the spread of a disease

  • infectious|contagious disease (=one that spreads quickly from one person to another)

  • a fatal /deadly disease (=one that causes death)

  • an incurable disease (=one that cannot be cured)

  • a degenerative disease (=one that gradually gets worse and worse)

  • a cure for a disease

  • the symptoms of a disease (=the things that show that someone has it)


COLLOCATIONS with Illness

  • have an illness|suffer from an illness

  • recover from an illness

  • serious illness| minor illness

  • short|long illness

  • childhood illness

  • acute illness (=an illness that becomes serious very quickly)

  • chronic illness (=an illness that lasts a long time and cannot be cured)

  • fatal illness (=an illness which causes death)

  • terminal illness (=an illness which cannot be cured and that causes death, often slowly)

  • terminal patient

  • mental illness

  • the symptoms of an illness (=the things that show that someone has it)

  • through illness (=because of illness)


music146. a) Listen to a story and answer the questions below.


    1. What was his friend diagnosed with?

    2. For how long was he yet supposed to live?

    3. What was he determined to do on learning his diagnosis?

    4. What was the reason for the friend’s sudden change in attitude?

    5. How had this attitude changed?

    6. What was the sick friend preparing for?

    7. Who cared for him during his last days and what was his attitude to this care?

    8. What can terminally ill people teach the others?


b) Discuss in pairs the story you have just heard and consider the choice of the terminally ill man. What other options can you suggest?


  • ^ 7. Translate the sentences into English using new vocabulary.




  1. Інфекційні хвороби швидко передаються від однієї людини до іншої.

  2. Нарешті вона знову повернулася на роботу після тривалої хвороби. Через хворобу їй довелося місяць провести в лікарні.

  3. Лікарі кажуть, що вона страждає на невиліковну смертельну хворобу.

  4. Багато людей скаржаться на легке нездужання в кінці робочого тижня.

  5. Він вже п’ять років страждає на серцеву недостатність.

  6. Психічні розлади часто зустрічаються серед міського населення, адже в місті люди зазнають більшого стресу.

  7. Він підхопив небезпечний вірус грипу десь у метро чи на вулиці і передав цю інфекцію всій сім’ї.

  8. Неможливо видужати від смертельної хвороби, але можна їй запобігти.

2563


8. Study the difference in meaning and use of the following words.


^ WORD CHOICE
ache, pain, twinge, pang, stitch; to ache, to hurt; to cure, to heal, to treat
Ache is a continuous pain that is not sharp or very strong, e.g. toothache, stomachache, backache, earache, a headache.

For other parts of the body we use pain which is the feeling you have when part of your body hurts. It is sharp and sudden.

COLLOCATIONS with PAIN:

have a pain in your stomach/leg/side etc

be in pain

chest/pain/back pain/neck pain etc

severe/terrible/chronic pain

sharp pain (=a short but severe pain)

excruciating pain (=very severe pain)

dull pain (=one that is not severe but continues for a long time)

nagging pain (=one that continues for a long time and keeps bothering you)

shooting pain (=a severe pain that starts in one place then quickly moves to another) ease/relieve/kill pain

pain relief/control

inflict pain (on somebody)

labour pains (=pain felt by a woman who is starting to have a baby)

period pain (=pain that a woman gets when she has her period [= cramps AmE]

aches and pains (=slight feelings of pain that are not very serious) e.g. Apart from the usual aches and pains, she felt all right.

be a pain in the neck (=not polite, to be very annoying) e.g. There were times when Joe could be a real pain in the neck.

take/go to (great) pains to do something (=make a special effort to do something) e.g.He's taken great pains to improve his image.

be at pains to do something (=to be especially careful to make sure people understand what you are saying or what you plan to do) e.g. Roy was at pains to point out that English was the only exam he'd ever failed.

for your pains (=as a reward for something you worked to achieve - used especially when this is disappointing) e.g. I fetched the file, and all I got for my pains was a dirty look from Simon.

on/under pain of death (=at the risk of being killed as punishment, if you do not obey) e.g. Communist activity was prohibited on pain of death.

Both nouns ache and pain are often used with the verb get:

I’ve got a terrible/ bad headache. I often get backache.

I woke up with a terrible pain in my chest. I get a pain in my leg when I run.

Ache is also a verb, describing a pain which continues for a long time but is not strong.

E.g. By the end of the day, my feet were aching.

Hurt is common as a verb, used to describe a pain which is stronger or more sudden. E.g. My throat hurts when I speak. Where does it hurt? (=Where is the pain?)

Twinge is a sudden feeling of slight pain: ^ I felt a twinge of pain in my back.

Pang is a sudden feeling of pain, sadness: hunger pangs

Stitch is a sharp pain in the side of your body, which you can get by running or laughing a lot. e.g. After jogging about a mile, I suddenly got a stitch in my side.

Spasm is an occasion when your muscles suddenly become tight, causing you pain:

Maggie felt a muscle spasm in her back. Tom's jaw muscles had gone into spasm.

back/shoulder/throat etc spasm

To cure is to make an illness or medical condition go away, to bring back to health: E.g.Many types of cancer can now be cured.

To heal is to make healthy after wounds of any type (broken bones, cuts, scratches); to make someone who is ill become healthy again, especially by using natural powers or prayer: a preacher who claims that he can heal the sick

To treat is to try to cure an illness or injury by using drugs, hospital care, operations etc ^ E.g. It was difficult to treat patients because of a shortage of medicine.

treat somebody with something: Nowadays, malaria can be treated with drugs.


9. a) Look at the table and match the problems to their symptoms and causes.


^ The problem

The symptoms

The cause of illness

indigestion

can’t sleep

often food or virus

asthma

upset stomach making you frequently go to the toilet

not getting enough sleep

a cold

sneezing, a sore throat, a cough

a virus

flu

a bloated, painful stomach; heartburn

doing too much exercise

diarrhoea

runny nose, sore eyes, sneezing

a virus

nausea

can’t stop yawning

illness, food etc

a hangover

sneezing, a sore throat, a cough, high temperature| fever, aching muscles

spending too much time in the sun

insomnia

a painful muscle contraction

an allergy to pollen

fatigue

spots and red lumps on the face and neck

eating too much or too quickly

cramp

high temperature, nausea, dizziness

too much alcohol

heat stroke

headache, feel sick, thirst

an allergy to dust or animals

hay fever

want to vomit; feel sick

bacteria under the skin

acne

difficulty breathing, wheezing

stress, anxiety


b) Use the table to talk about health problems, as in the example. Which of these problems have you experienced?
If you have a bloated, painful stomach, then you’ve probably got indigestion. This is usually caused by eating too much too quickly.
c) What medical problem could you suffer…

  • on a very hot day?

  • if you get wet on a cold day?preg couple

  • if you work too hard without rest?

  • if you were at a party the day before?

  • if you suffer a huge stress?

  • if your food was not fresh?

  • if you went to the gym for the first time?

  • if you are pregnant?

  • in spring?

  • living in a very dusty room?

  • if you are a teenager?

  • if you drink very cold water on a hot day?

music1410. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions.
^ 1. What is the man's name?

A. Russell

B. Randall

C. Ronald

2. How did the man probably find out about Dr. Carter?

A. He saw the office on his way home from work.

B. A friend referred him to Dr. Carter's office.

C. He found Dr. Carter's number in the phone book.

^ 3. What time does he schedule an appointment to see Dr. Carter?

A. Tuesdaypaint can

B. Wednesday

C. Thursday

4. Why does the man want to see the doctor?

A. He hurt his knee when a tall ladder fell on him.

B. He injured his ankle when he fell from a ladder.

C. He sprained his hand when he fell off the roof of his house.

^ 5. What does the receptionist suggest at the end of the conversation?

A. The man should put some ice on his injury.

B. The man needs to come into the office right away.

C. The man ought to take it easy for a few days.
11. Match the beginnings and the endings of the sentences, learn some more medical problems.

  1. I have a bruise on my leg

  2. Tan slowly, avoid sunburn

  3. These leftovers not only cause bad breath

  4. She always has blisters

  5. I broke out in a painful rash (spots)

  6. The lump in Kay's breast

  7. You look like you’ve been in the wars—

  8. A sudden weather change

  9. My nose itches,

  10. I felt breathless

  11. She stopped using the drugs in January

  12. The parasite, originating in human fecal matter,

  13. Despite the heat of the afternoon,

  14. But if tumour cells spread, a process called metastasis,

  15. I went across to the dripping tap

  16. If you feel dizzy or short of breath,

  1. who gave you that black eye?

  2. but constipation, nausea, and weakness as well.

  3. I want to scratch it.

  4. after wearing new, tight shoes.

  5. turned out to be cancerous.

  6. and held my swollen hand under the cold running water.

  7. when she suddenly passed out and began feeling faint and weak.

  8. after playing football.

  9. has given him painful joints.

  10. they can form tumours in vital organs such as the lungs.

  11. after having run unusually fast to catch a bus.

  12. and use sun filter creams and lotions - lots and often.

  13. stop exercising immediately.

  14. she felt shivery, and guessed it was delayed shock.

  15. after having eaten too many strawberries at a time.

  16. in turn causes diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite and cramps.


^ 12. Study the collocations and the names of diseases, translate them.


verb

common collocations

example

catch

a cold, the flu, a chill, pneumonia

I got soaking wet and caught a cold.

contract

[formal]

a disease, malaria, typhoid

Uncle Jess contracted malaria while he was working in Africa.

develop

[formal]

(lung/ breast) cancer, diabetes, AIDS, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease

My grandfather developed Alzheimer’s disease and could no longer remember things or recognize people.

suffer from

asthma, hay fever, backache

She has suffered from asthma all her life.

have an attack of

bronchitis, asthma, hay fever, diarrhoea

She had an attack of hay fever and was sneezing non-stop.

be diagnosed with

(lung/ breast) cancer, AIDS, leukaemia, autism

He was diagnosed with lung cancer and died a year later.

suffer/ sustain

(major/ minor/ serious/ head) injuries

The driver sustained serious head injuries in the crash.

13. a) Match the left and right columns to make a collocation.


  1. sustain

  2. contract

  3. have an attack of

  4. develop

  5. be diagnosed with

  6. catch

  1. diarrhea

  2. cold

  3. breast cancer

  4. minor injuries

  5. typhoid

  6. autism


b) Use the verbs and expressions from the left-hand column instead of the verb get in these newspaper extracts.


1. Many musicians who get arthritis experience the tragedy of no longer being able to play their instrument.

3. To get cancer is the most frightening experience, and people often need intense counseling to cope with it.

5. Mr. Taylor escaped with bruises, but experts say he was lucky not to have got serious injuries.

2. More than 50 passengers on the flight got moderate or severe diarrhoea. Medical officials suspect the in-flight catering was responsible.

4. Millions of people get malaria each year in poorer countries, and drugs to treat it are in short supply.

6. Patients often get pneumonia while in hospital. In fact, experts now think hospitals may be the worst place to be if you are sick and weak.


music14 14. You will hear an interview with Dr. Peterson who talks about allergies.

a) Answer the questions below.


  1. What is ‘an allergy’ according to Dr. Peterson?

  2. What kinds of allergic reactions to substances does he mention?

  3. What is the doctor’s example of the fact that allergies are now on the rise?

  4. Why are there fewer breast-fed babies than the bottle-fed ones?

  5. How do mothers prevent their children’s immune systems from developing?

  6. Are allergies genetic?

  7. What changes in people’s lifestyle have caused the increase of allergies?

  8. What type of allergy has particularly increased and why?


b) Fill in the gaps in the Dr. Peterson’s conclusion.


  • Too much ______________________;

  • An obsession with _________________;

  • Too few ___________ and too many _______________ foods;

  • Too little __________ fruit and veg;

  • An abuse of ______________ food all-year-round;

  • Too many ___________________;

  • Far too much ___________.


C) In pairs act out the conversation between the interviewer and Dr. Peterson using the received information. Start with quoting Charlie N. Abbers.

What linguistic genius

set up the sneeze and wheeze

To rhyme so very perfectly

with the word for allergies?
^ 15. Fill in the gaps with the correct word.
1. She died after a long ……….

a) disease b) ailment c) illness d) sicknessnose

2. The doctor had three ……… of nose-bleeding in the same day.

a) aspects b) cases c) examples d) illnesses

3. He still suffers from a rare tropical disease which he ……… while in Congo.

a) contracted b) gained c) infected d) received

4. The teachers at the school went ……… with flu one after another.

a) down b) off c) out d) underwb01295_

5. Malaria is ……… by the female mosquito.

a)broadcast b) sent c) transmitted d) transported

6. Mary is in bed with a ……… attack of flu.

a) hard b) heavy c) large d) severe

7. My brother was ……… ill yesterday and is now in hospital.

a) broken b) caught c) fallen d) taken

8. The school is half empty as a serious epidemic of measles has broken ……….

a) down b) in c) out d) up

9. Several ……… of malaria have been reported.

a) cases b) doses c) occurrences d) types

10. He ……… a rare disease when he was working in the hospital.

a) caught b) infected c) suffered d) tookdoctor

11. My headaches are usually brought ……… by worry.

a) in b) on c) up d) out

12. The doctor examined him carefully and ……… influenza.

a) concluded b) decided c) diagnosed d) realized

13. Some diseases ……… quickly from one person to another.

a) catch b) get about c) move d) spread

14. It was a minor illness and he soon got ……… it.

a) around b) on with c) over d) up to

15. I can never touch a lobster because I’m ……… to shellfish.

a) allergic b) infected c) sensible d) sensitive

16. The local medical official reported a serious ……… of food-poisoning.

a) event b) incident c) outbreak d) state

17. The patient ……… his illness down to a virus infection.

a) laid b) placed c) put d)traced

18. The ……… in his leg was so terrible that he would go mad.

a) bruise b) disease c) illness d) pain

19. Steve is permanently ……... as the result of a car accident.

a) disabled b) inactive c) incapable d) powerless

20. Jean was ……… in the accident. She was laid up for a month with a broken leg.

a) injured b) bitten c) broken d) fainted brok leg
^ 16. Translate into English.


  1. Двоє пожежників отримали серйозні поранення.

  2. Дженні виглядала так, начебто вона плакала, а на її щоці був страшний синець.

  3. Симптомами цієї хвороби є лихоманка і висипи на тілі.

  4. Він страждає від фізичного і розумового виснаження.

  5. Надлишок вітаміну Д може викликати втому, втрату апетиту і блювоту.

  6. Я відчув свербіж, а потім помітив, що на тому місці з’явився висип.

  7. Я втрачаю свідомість, коли бачу кров.

  8. Ця хвороба, схожа на грип, призводить до виникнення водяних пухирців на руках та роті.

  9. Здається, він вперше поскаржився на головний біль і лихоманку кілька днів тому.

  10. Нещодавно в мене сильно боліли суглоби, особливо зап’ястний і плечовий.

  11. Вагітні жінки часто страждають печією.

  12. Коли Джейн береться за прибирання, в неї червоніють очі, вона чхає і в неї починається нежить. Не обов’язково бути лікарем, щоб зрозуміти, що в неї алергія на пил.


17. Write a letter to your close friend describing your recent illness, its symptoms and the way you have treated it. Revise the rules of writing informal letters in Module 1 Exercise 101.
18. a) Discuss in pairs what Thomas More meant in his Utopia when he said: It is a wise man’s part, rather to avoid sickness, than to wish for medicines. 
b) Read the magazine article which gives you advice about the prevention and treatment of colds. Fill in the gaps with suitable words.
Health Smart

The cold and flu season is back again, so it’s time to 1)_________ up on prevention and treatment. 2) _________ to popular belief, cooler weather doesn’t cause colds. What is more likely is that we stay indoors more, giving viruses 3)_________ to spread from person to person. In addition, the cold months are associated 4)_________ low humidity, and the dry air makes the nasal cavity more susceptible to bugs. Consequently, cases of colds and flu surge between the beginning of autumn and spring (the 5)__________ adult gets two to four respiratory infections a year; children even more). Because the season is upon us, it is a good 6)_________ to revise a few cold and flu tactics.

To prevent the infection, the best defence is a good offence. The first step is to 7)_________ physical contact with the cold sufferer. When someone with a cold sneezes, coughs or sniffles, 8)_________ your distance. Hugging, kissing and shaking hands are sure ways to catch a cold.sick man


1 a) bring

b) brush

c) get

d) take


2 a) Contrary

b) Opposite

c) Similar

d) Unlike


3 a) chance

b) chances

c) the opportunities

d) an opportunity


4 a) for

b) on

c) to

d) with


5 a) average

b) different

c) ordinary

d) same


6 a) idea

b) suggestion

c) sense

d) advice


7 a) break

b) control

c) limit

d) lose


8 a) cover

b) judge

c) keep

d) remember


c) What other tips on preventing colds and flu do you know? Share your ideas with your partner. How do you usually treat a cold or flu?
^ 19. Fill the gaps with the right words from the list below.



administer

harmless

serums

after

including

smallpox

antibodies

injected

substances

diseases

orally

symptoms

fight

prevent

vaccines

generally

prevention



Drugs That Prevent Disease
Doctors use two main types of drugs for the ___________ of disease:

1) Vaccines contain dead or __________ germs. They cause the body to develop ___________ called ___________ that act to ___________ disease. Doctors ___________ __________ before a person has been exposed to such ____________ as poliomyelitis or ___________. Vaccines are usually __________ but sometimes are given __________.

2) Serums contain antibodies that __________ off the germs of certain diseases, __________ scarlet fever and lockjaw. These drugs are given __________ a person has been exposed to the disease, or after __________ of the disease have appeared. __________ are __________ administered by injection.
^ 20. Read the following article to learn how to recognize symptoms of a heart attack or stroke.

A stroke is a medical condition in which blood is suddenly blocked and can’t reach the brain.

A heart attack is a sudden serious medical condition in which someone's heart stops working normally, causing them great pain.

From: Fact Sheet on Heart Attack, Stroke and Risk Factors
^ HOW TO RECOGNIZE A HEART ATTACKheart
If you feel an uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in the center of your chest (that may spread to your shoulders, neck or arms) and your discomfort lasts for more than a few minutes, you could be having a heart attack. Lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea or shortness of breath also may occur, although not all symptoms necessarily occur. Sharp, stabbing twinges, on the other hand, usually aren’t signals of a heart attack.

When a person has these symptoms, it’s natural for him or her to deny what’s happening. No one wants to think that he might be having a heart attack. But before you shrug off the symptoms, it’s important to know that as many as 250,000 heart attack victims died before reaching the hospital last year, many of them because they refused to take their symptoms seriously.ambulance

What should you do if you think you might be having a heart attack? If you’re uncomfortable for more than a few minutes, call your local emergency medical service (EMS) immediately. If the EMS isn’t available, get to a hospital offering emergency cardiac care as soon as possible.

Know in advance which route from home or work will take you to the hospital the quickest. You might even discuss your possible choices with your doctor. Another option is to call your local American Heart Association and ask which recognized emergency medical service and hospitals cover your area. Keep emergency information where you can find it easily and develop a “buddy system” with someone you know.

^ HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE EARLY SIGNALS OF STROKE

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The primary signal of a stroke is a sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm and/or leg on one side of the body. Other signals include: sudden dimness or loss of vision, particularly one eye; loss of speech, or trouble speaking or understanding speech; sudden severe headache with no apparent cause; unexplained dizziness, unsteadiness or sudden falls, especially when associated with other neurological symptoms. eye

Many strokes can be prevented by diagnosing and controlling hypertension (high blood pressure), since hypertension is a leading cause of stroke. Sometimes major strokes are preceded by transient ischemic attacks or TIAs. These are “little strokes” whose effects are similar to the symptoms of a major stroke, except that they only last for a very short time. TIAs can occur days, weeks, or months before a severe stroke, and so should be considered warning signals. Prompt medical or surgical attention to these symptoms can prevent a major stroke.

(Copyright the American Heart Association in 1992)
^ 21. Search the text for the synonymous expressions to the following phrases.


  1. giddiness, dizziness;

  2. to lose consciousness, to pass out;

  3. being breathless;

  4. sharp and sudden pain;

  5. to disregard, to treat something as unimportant and not worry about it;

  6. inability to feel anything;

  7. weakness of eyes and inability to see well;

  8. a system in which two people in a group are put together to help each other or keep each other safe;

  9. quick, immediate.




  • ^ 22. Translate into English.


Серцевий напад і інсульт є серйозними хворобами. Щоб вони не стали для вас фатальними, слід знати їхні симптоми і яким чином потрібно на них реагувати. Симптомами серцевого нападу є неприємний внутрішній тиск чи біль у грудях, які тривають більше кількох хвилин. Іноді також зустрічаються запаморочення, спітніння, нудота, задишка або втрата свідомості. Ці симптоми не варто залишати поза увагою, і якщо вже ви їх відчули, одразу викликайте службу невідкладної медичної допомоги або постарайтеся потрапити до лікарні, де вам нададуть необхідну кардіологічну допомогу. Для цього добре було б створити систему взаємопідтримки із близькою вам людиною, яка б у разі необхідності могла потурбуватися про вас і ваше здоров’я.

Першими ознаками інсульту є раптова слабкість, оніміння певних частин тіла, повна або часткова втрата зору, порушення мовлення, безпідставні запаморочення, хитання або раптові падіння. Основною причиною більшості інсультів вважають гіпертонію. Інсульту можуть передувати кілька мікроінсультів, які мають ті ж симптоми, але менш тривалі. Ці стани вимагають негайного візиту до лікаря, що може попередити трагедію і зберегти вам життя.

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