I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary




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Unit 2

Text C
Public Image of Engineering
The engineer's public image is somewhat distorted. The layman tends to view the engineer's endeavors as being somewhat mechanical. He imagines that the engineer, given a problem to solve, proceeds to the solution by the application of certain formulae, tables, and graphs; nothing more. The art of engineering is not generally appreciated, yet it is a rare problem indeed that does not give rise to a host of workable solutions. The engineer in fact synthesizes knowledge from many vastly different areas in reaching acceptable solutions.

It is recognized that technology, or its misapplication, is responsible for the various pollution threats and also for devastating weapons of war, and the public assumes that it is the engineers who have brought us to this pass. It should he realized that technology, too operates according to demand, and just as the demand for goods and comfort has led to environmental damage, so technology can also correct this. In one sense engineers with their machines are the tools of society, and it is society that ultimately determines how they are to be used.
Unit 3

Text C
Public Image of Engineering

The engineer's public image is somewhat distorted. The layman tends to view the engineer's endeavors as being somewhat mechanical. He imagines that the engineer, given a problem to solve, proceeds to the solution by the application of certain formulae, tables, and graphs; nothing more. The art of engineering is not generally appreciated, yet it is a rare problem indeed that does not give rise to a host of workable solutions. The engineer in fact synthesizes knowledge from many vastly different areas in reaching acceptable solutions.

It is recognized that technology, or its misapplication, is responsible for the various pollution threats and also for devastating weapons of war, and the public assumes that it is the engineers who have brought us to this pass. It should he realized that technology, too operates according to demand, and just as the demand for goods and comfort has led to environmental damage, so technology can also correct this. In one sense engineers with their machines are the tools of society, and it is society that ultimately determines how they are to be used.
Unit 4

Text C
Public Image of Engineering
The engineer's public image is somewhat distorted. The layman tends to view the engineer's endeavors as being somewhat mechanical. He imagines that the engineer, given a problem to solve, proceeds to the solution by the application of certain formulae, tables, and graphs; nothing more. The art of engineering is not generally appreciated, yet it is a rare problem indeed that does not give rise to a host of workable solutions. The engineer in fact synthesizes knowledge from many vastly different areas in reaching acceptable solutions.

It is recognized that technology, or its misapplication, is responsible for the various pollution threats and also for devastating weapons of war, and the public assumes that it is the engineers who have brought us to this pass. It should he realized that technology, too operates according to demand, and just as the demand for goods and comfort has led to environmental damage, so technology can also correct this. In one sense engineers with their machines are the tools of society, and it is society that ultimately determines how they are to be used.
Unit 5

Text C

Laptops Power Supply
Power Supply like desktops, Laptops can be plugged into the wall to receive AC power from the electric power grid through an AC adapter. But what makes the laptop unique is that it is portable; so, laptops are also powered by batteries. All laptops use some type of rechargeable battery (lithium, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride).

The battery life varies depending on the type of rechargeable battery (lithium batteries tend to hold their charge longer) and how you use your computer (frequent use of disk drives consumes a lot of battery power). In addition to the main battery, laptops have other batteries to run clocks and backup CMOS RAM.
Unit 6

Text C

Laptops Power Supply
Power Supply like desktops, Laptops can be plugged into the wall to receive AC power from the electric power grid through an AC adapter. But what makes the laptop unique is that it is portable; so, laptops are also powered by batteries. All laptops use some type of rechargeable battery (lithium, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride).

The battery life varies depending on the type of rechargeable battery (lithium batteries tend to hold their charge longer) and how you use your computer (frequent use of disk drives consumes a lot of battery power). In addition to the main battery, laptops have other batteries to run clocks and backup CMOS RAM.
Unit 7

Text C
Apparel Industry and computers
Digitising Systems. Digitisers put original patterns into the computer for use and
storage.

These basic patterns can be manipulated with the help of a computer, for example in case of trousers, darts can be moved, pleats can be created or flair can be introduced. This way new designs can be created on screen from pre-existing patterns. Today large scanners are also used to input pattern shapes instead of tracing patterns on a digitiser.

Grading Systems. After a sample size pattern has been put, it has to be graded up and down in size.

The system will then automatically produce the pattern shapes in all the pre-specified size.

Marker Making Systems. Computerised marker making systems help in laying the pattern part together more economically than an operator could do with hands. This ensures minimal wastage of fabric.

Cutting Operations. Pattern generated by marker making systems can be directed to automated cutting machines which are operated without the help of human hands.
Unit 8

Text C

Robots in Manufacturing
Today most robots are used in manufacturing operations. The applications of robots can be divided into three categories:

  1. material handling

  2. processing operations

  3. assembly and inspection.

Material-handling is the transfer of material and loading and unloading of machines. Material-transfer applications require the robot to move materials or work parts from one to another. Machine loading and unloading operations utilize a robot to load and unload parts. This requires the robot to be equipped with a grip-per that can grasp parts. Usually the gripper must be designed specifically for the particular part geometry.

In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates a tool to perform a process on the work part. Examples of such applications include spot welding, continuous arc welding and spray painting. Other operations in this category include grinding and polishing in which a rotating spindle serves as the robot's tool.

The third application area of industrial robots is assembly and inspection. The use of robots in assembly is expected to increase because of the high cost of manual labour. But the design of the product is an important aspect of robotic assembly.

Inspection is another area of factory operations in which the utilization of robots is growing. In a typical inspection job, the robot positions a sensor with respect to the work part and determines whether the part answers the quality specifications. In nearly all industrial robotic applications, the robot provides a substitute for human labour.
^ Тексти для самостійного читання
1. Read and translate the text:

The term 'semiconductor' means half-conductor that is a material whose conductivity ranges between that of conductors and non-conductors or insulators. They include great variety of elements (silicon, germanium, selenium, phosphorus and others), many chemical compounds (oxides, sulphides) as well as numerous ores and minerals.

While the conductivity of metals is very little influenced by temperature, conductivity of semiconductors sharply increases with heating and falls with cooling. This dependence has opened great prospects for employing semiconductors in measuring techniques.

Light as well as heat, increases the conductivity of semiconducting materials, this principle being used in creating photo resistances. It is also widely applied for switching on engines, for counting on conveyer belts, a well as various systems of emergency signals and for reproducing sound in cinematography. Besides reacting to light, semiconductors react to all kinds of radiations and they are therefore employing in designing electronic counters.

Engineers and physicists turned their attention to semiconductors more that fifty years ago, seeing in them the way of solving complicated engineering problems. Converting heat into electricity without using boilers or other machines was one of them. This could be done as means of metal thermocouples, but in this way impossible to convert more one per cent of the heat into electricity. The thermocouples made later of conductors more generated ten times as much electricity as the metal ones.

Sunlight like heat can feed our electric circuit. Photocells made of semiconducting materials are capable of transforming ten per cent of sunray energy into electric power. By burning wood, which has accumulated the same amount of solar energy, we obtained only heat fractions of one per cent of electric power. The electricity generated by semiconductor thermocouples can produce not only heat but also cold, this principle being used in manufacturing refrigerators. Semiconducting materials are also excellent means of maintaining a constant temperature irrespective of the surrounding temperature changes. The latter can vary over a wide range, for example, from 59C below OC to 100C above OC. Semiconductors are the youngest field of physical science. Yet even now they are determining the process of radio engineering, automation, chemistry, electrical engineering and many other fields of science and technique.
^ 2. Read and translate the text in a written form:

Electronic devices are used in every sector of the modern economy. The industry employs over a million people in developing, manufacturing, and selling electronic equipment and devices. About 34 percent of all workers in this field work for companies that make electronic components, such as semiconductors, electronic coils, and transformers or electronic connectors. Computers, communications equipment, navigational systems, and other electronic equipment are sold to the government, businesses, and industries to be used in transportation and data processing and in automated production systems. Television sets, digital cameras, wireless telephones, and personal computers are some of the many electronic products sold to consumers.

The largest group of workers in the electronics industry have formal training in a variety of technical and professional areas. Before an electronic product can be manufactured and offered for sale, a good deal of work goes into research and development. Much of this research is done by scientists, including physicists, chemists, and mathematicians. Engineers apply the scientific research to specific production problems. Electrical engineers make up the largest group of engineers in the industry, but the field also employs mechanical, chemical, and metallurgical engineers. Working with engineers and managers, industrial designers determine what a product will look like. The largest segment of the industry's professional and technical workers consists of computer specialists, who work in areas from the design of new products to programming the computers that control automated manufacturing processes. Other technical workers, such as electronics technicians, drafters, and engineering aides, also assist the scientists, engineers, and designers. About 31 percent of all workers in electronics manufacturing have plant jobs in production, maintenance, and related areas. The largest group of employees consists of assemblers who put together components and finished products. Assemblers usually use small tools, soldering irons, and light welding equipment and follow printed diagrams or instructions. Less-skilled assemblers perform repetitive tasks on assembly lines that require manual dexterity. As more and more assembly processes are automated, assemblers often supervise the machinery that does the actual assembly of products.

Other workers in the industry process parts or get them ready for assembly. Tinners and electroplaters, for example, coat metal or plastic parts with a thin coating of metal. Anodizers treat these parts in special baths that leave a protective or decorative film. Silkscreen printers place decorative patterns or instructive diagrams on electronic equipment. Etching equipment operators sometimes etch copper on circuit boards. Other special workers employed in the electronics industry include operators of infrared ovens and hydrogen furnaces, who remove any moisture or foreign matter left on glass, ceramic, or metal parts. Exhaust operators and sealers tend gas flame machines that remove impurities from tubes, take out the gases, and seal up the tubes. Electronic assembly inspectors check the products after they have assembled them to make sure the products meet the company's standards. Some inspectors are experienced electronics technicians, while others are less-skilled workers. Inspectors and testers are needed at all phases of electronics manufacturing. Maintenance workers, such as industrial machinery repairers and electricians, repair and maintain manufacturing and electrical equipment. In addition, air conditioning and refrigeration mechanics are needed to maintain the special temperature-controlled, dust-free rooms found in many electronics plants.
^ 3. Computers and Computer Systems

Computers can be divided into 3 main types, depending on their size and power. Mainframe computers are the largest and the most powerful. They can process large amounts of information very quickly and can be used by many people at the same time. They usually fill the whole room and are sometimes referred to as mainframes or computer installations. They are found in large institutions like universities and government departments.

Minicomputers, commonly known as minis, are smaller and less powerful than mainframes. They are about the size of an office desk and are usually found in banks and offices. They are becoming less popular as microcomputers improve. Microcomputers, commonly known as micros, are the smallest and the least powerful. They are about the size of a typewriter. They can handle smaller amounts of information at a time and are slower than the other two types. They are ideal for use as home computers and are also used in education and business. More powerful microcomputers are gradually being produced; therefore they are becoming the most commonly used type of computers.

A computer can do very little until it is given some information. This is known as the input and usually consists of a program and some data.

A program is a set of instructions, written in a special computer language, telling the computer what operations and processes have to be carried out and in what order they should be done. Data, however, is the particular information that has to be processed by the computer, e.g. numbers, names, measurements. Data brought out of the computer is known as the output.

When a program is run, the computer executes the program step by step to process

the data. The same program can be used with different sets of data.

Information in the form of programs and data is called software, but the pieces of

equipment making up the computer system are known as hardware.

The most important item of hardware is the CPU (Central Processing Unit). This is

the electronic unit at the centre of the computer system. It contains the processor and the main memory. The processor is the brain of the computer. It does all the processing and controls all the other devices in the computer system.

The main memory is the part of the computer where programs and data being used by the processor can be stored. However it only stores information while the computer is switched on and it has a limited capacity.

All the other devices in the computer system, which can be connected to the CPU, are known as peripherals. These include input devices, output devices and storage devices.

An input device is a peripheral, which enables information to be fed into the computer. The most commonly used input device is a keyboard. An output device is a peripheral, which enables information to be brought out of the computer, usually to display the processed data. The most commonly used output device is a specially-adapted television known as a monitor or VDU (Visual Display Unit). Another common output device is a printer. This prints the output of the CPU onto paper.

A storage device is a peripheral used for the permanent storage of information. It has a much greater capacity than the main memory and commonly uses magnetic tape or magnetic discs as the storage medium.

These are the main units of hardware of any computer system whether a small "micro" or a large mainframe system.

At the heart of the computer is the microprocessor. This contains several REGISTERS to store data and an ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT (ALU) which manipulates data. It acts as the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer, carrying out a sequence of instructions, called a program.

The program may be stored in memory, as software, or written into the memory from tape or disk. There are two types of memory. Read Only Memory (ROM) which stores software permanently. The software is not lost when the computer is switched off but the stored data cannot be changed. Random Access Memory (RAM) which can be written to and read from. The stored data is volatile. It is lost when the computer is switched off.

The actual computer, its case and printed circuit boards etc are known as hardware. The computer needs to communicate with the outside world. It does this via interfaces which are usually a plug or socket of some type. The computer is a digital device. It may need to communicate with an analogue device such as a loudspeaker or variable speed control. To do this it uses digital to analogue and analogue to digital converters.

Computers can help students perform mathematical operations and solve difficult problems. They can be used to teach courses such as computer-aided design, language learning, programming, mathematics etc.

Computers can help students perform mathematical operations and solve difficult questions.

PCs are also used for administrative purposes: for example, schools use databases and word-processors to keep records of students, teachers and materials. Race organizers and journalists rely on computers to provide them with the current positions of riders and teams in both the particular stages of the race and in the overall competition.

Workstations in the race buses provide timing system and give up-to-the-minute timing information to TV stations. In the press room several PCs give real-time information on the state of the race. Computer databases are also used in the drug-detecting tests for competitors.

Computers store information about amount of money held by each client and enable staff to access large databases and to carry out financial transactions at high speed. They also control the automatic cash dispensers which by the use of a personal coded card, dispense money to clients.

Airline pilots use computers to help them control the plane. For example, monitors display data about fuel consumption and weather conditions. In airport control towers, computers are used to manage radar systems and regulate air traffic. . On the ground, airlines are connected to travel agencies by computer. Travel agents use computers to find out about the availability of flights, prices, times, stopovers and many other details.
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