I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary




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^ 1. Define if the statements are True or False:
1) Digitisers put original patters into the computer for use and storage.

2) New designs cannot be created on screen from preexisting patterns.

3) Computerised marker making systems help in laying the pattern part together more economically than an operator coned do with hands.

4) Marker making system does not ensure minimal wastage of fabric.

^ 2. Listen to the text once more and answer the questions:

1) What is used today to input pattern shapes instead of tracing patterns on a digitizer?

2) Where can generated patterns be directed to?
Unit 8

Text A

Automation

^ I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary

Automation is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only. The sequences of operations are controlled auto­matically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.

The term automation is also used to describe nonmanufacturing systems in which automatic devices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.

Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency.

Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy work pieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine.

In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.

The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. The common household thermostat is an example of a feedback device.

Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.

Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled by punched paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled machining centres machine tools can perform several different machining operations.

More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers have made possible the development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.

Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.

Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in systems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming a standard part of the modern office. They are used to edit texts, to type letters and so on.

Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the telephone industry dialling and transmission are all done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic signalling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be monitored.

Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to automate, though agriculture industry may become more mechanized, especially in the processing and packaging of foods.

The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely used in car and other consumer product industries.

Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of automation that answers its particular production needs.
Vocabulary
performing – виконання

certain – деякі

sequences – послідовність

to control – управляти

highly automated system – високо автоматизована система

assembly – зборка

complex – складний

to describe – описувати

nonmanufacturing systems – невиробничі системи

independently – незалежно

devices – прилади

automated control system – автоматизовані системи управління

automated manufacturing – автоматизоване виробництво

mechanization – механізація

simplification – спрощення

to resemble – нагадувати, імітувати

production efficiency – ефективність виробництва

to motorize – запам'ятовувати

dangerous – небезпечний

to transfer – трансформувати

to position – визначати місце

work piece – робоча деталь

integrated system of production – інтегровані системи виробництва

to adopt – ухвалити

feedback – зворотній зв'язок

ability – здатність

steam engine – паровий двигун

household – домашній

speed up – прискорювати

slowdown – сповільнювати

numerically controlled machines – верстати з числовим управлінням

machine tool – верстати

machining operations – механічна обробка

dimensions – розміри

mouse – мишка

light pen – курсор

drawing – креслення

to machine – обробляти

flexible manufacturing systems – гнучкі виробничі системи

to monitor – відслідковувати

to edit – друкувати

communication – зв'язок

dialling – набір номеру

transmission – передача

carriage – потяг

processing – переробка

packaging – упаковка

concept - поняття

^ II Answer the following questions:
1) What is automation?

2) What is the most familiar example of a highly automated system?

3) What is the term “automation” used to?

4) What is mechanization?

5) What do industrial robots perform?

6) Where was the first automated method of production used?

7) What is feed back principle used in?

8) What is the role of computers in automation?

9) What did the introduction of microprocessors and computers lead to?

10) What are flexible manufacturing systems?

11) What influence has automation had on the different areas of economy?
^ III Match the terms:
sequence of operations – зворотній зв'язок

controlled automatically – виробничі операції

to design – транспортувати

to transfer – вимірювати

integrated system – керований автоматично

feed back principle – послідовність операцій

compare – конструювати

measure – порівнювати

production operations – інтегровані системи

computer-aided design – комп’ютеризоване виробництво

computer-aided manufacture – комп'ютеризоване конструювання
^ IV Translate into Ukrainian:
manufacture assembly plant, automatic equipment, automated central systems, work piece, steam engine, house hold thermostat, facilitate, numerically controlled machines, motions, dimensions, light pen, input device, drawing, machining centre.
V Translate into English:
механічна обробка, креслення, зворотній зв'язок, виробничий процес, прискорювати, застосовувати, розробка, гнучкі автоматизовані системи, верстати з числовим управлінням, зв'язок, передача, набір номера, управляти автоматично, сигнальні прилади, потяг, промисловість.
^ VI Translate the sentences into English:
1) Автоматизація виробництва – це система, яка виконує певні завдання за допомогою машин тільки.

2) Автоматичні прилади працюють незалежно від людини.

3) Механізація була першим етапом до шляху до автоматизації.

4) Промислові роботи спроектовані для виконання простих завдань в небезпечному для людини середовищі.

5) Інтегровані системи виробництва вперше були застосовані у автомобільній промисловості.

6) Принцип зворотного зв'язку використовується в механізмах з автоматичним управлінням, коли машини можуть керувати самі себе.

7) Застосування мікропроцесорів зробило можливим розвиток технологій комп'ютеризованого проектування та виробництва.
^ VII Practise asking questions.

Ask all possible questions to the different members of the sentence.
1) The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker.

2) Automated method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and become known as Detroit automation.
VIII Speak on the topic “Automation”



IX Rendering
^ 1. Read the text and be ready to answer the questions:
1) What is one of the most important application area for automation technology?

2) What does fixed automation refer to?

3) Why is it suitable for products that are made in large volumes?

4) What is programmable automation?

5) Why are production rates in programmable automation generally lower than in fixed automation?

6) What do numerical-control machine-tools operate?

7) What is flexible automation?

8) What is the principle of flexible automation performance?
Text B
^ TYPES OF AUTOMATION
Manufacturing is one of the most important application area for automation technology. There are several types of automation in manufacturing. The examples of automated systems used in manufacturing are described below.

1. Fixed automation, sometimes called «hard automation)) refers to automated machines in which the equipment configuration allows fixed sequence of processing operations. These machines are programmed by their design to make only certain processing operations. They are not easily changed over from one product style to another. This form of automation needs high initial investments and high production rates. That is why it is suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation are machining transfer lines found in the automobile industry, automatic assembly machines and certain chemical processes.

2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in large
quantities, ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each
new product the production equipment must be reprogrammed an
d changed over. This reprogramming and changeover take a period of non-productive time. Production rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to facilitate product changeover rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine-tool is a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in computer memory for each different product style and the machine-tool is controlled by the computer programme.

^ 3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable automation. Programmable automation requires time to re-program and change over the production equipment for each series of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the number of products is limited so that the changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment in flexible automation is done at a computer terminal without using the production equipment itself. Flexible automation allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after another.
^ 2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Translate the part of the text in italics in a written form.
4. Retell the text according to your plan.
X Comprehension skills.
Remember the words:
material handling – управління матеріалом

processing operations – операції обробки

assembly and inspection – зборка і контроль

to transfer – транспортувати

loading – загрузка

utilize – використовувати

gripper – пристрій для захвату (деталі)

spot welding – точне зварювання

arc welding – дугове зварювання

grinding – зроблене

polishing – полірування

rotating spindle – обертаючий шпиндель

specifications – специфікація (характеристика)
^ Listen to the text and define if the statements are True or False:
1) Material-transfer applications do not require the robot to move materials or work parts from one to another.

2) Usually the gripper must be designed specifically for the particular past geometry.

3) In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates a tool to perform a process on the work part.

4) Different kinds of welding are not done by robots.
^ Listen to the text once more and answer the questions:
1) In what machining operations does a rotating spindle serve as the robot's tool?

2) What another area of factory operations are robots used in?
Unit 1

Text C
Engineering as a profession.

Today the traditional fields of engineering are not nearly as distinct as they used to be.

In application, the area of specialization shown on an engineering graduate's degree is not always a sure guide to that in which he will find employment.

However, a mechanical or electrical engineer, for example, may be employed by the aerospace, chemical, or mining industries, or by many others.

Many new areas of engineering endeavour, which come across the traditional lines, are today attracting attention. Direct energy conversion calls for a combination of mechanical, electrical and often chemical engineering. The field of bioengineering involves the application of electrical and mechanical engineering principles in understanding and repairing the human body. Environmental engineering and the study of water and air resources call for knowledge in geology, oceanography, and meteorology. Computer science, information engineering, systems engineering, and operations research are among the fields of recent interest.

Engineering is often compared to medicine and law in discussions of professional status. Engineers require specialised knowledge and intensive preparation with continued study after leaving the university. The profession has a strong organizational structure, requires high standards, and operates in the public service. These attributes are commonly associated with word professional.

Most important is the fact that engineers see themselves as professionals. They have to be technically competent and operate with responsibility in conformity with accepted notions of professionalism.

The number of people involved is larger than in most other professional areas.
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