I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary




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VII Practise asking questions.

^ Ask all possible questions to the different members of the sentence.
1) Garment manufacturers are seeing the need to accommodate this now technology in their products.

2) We expect that devices and sensors will become integrated into clothes associated with particular activities.

^ VIII Speak on the topic “Computerized Clothing”
IX Rendering
1. Read the text and be ready to answer the following questions:

1) What keeps people warm, safe and in style?

2) What items are manufactured from textiles?

3) What are non-traditional uses of textiles?

4) What is the process of transforming yanks into cloth that has been known for centuries?

5) How can you characterize modern looms?

6) What can yarns be made of?

7) What machines is knitting performed on in the textile industry?

8) What has been made necessary by growing domestic and international competition?

9) What is advanced machinery boosting?

10) What can you say about flexible manufacturing in the textile industry?

^ Text B

The Nature of the Industry
Textile mills make yarn and fabric for clothing and many other items that keep us warm, safe, and in style. Although most people associate textiles with cloth for apparel, the industry also manufactures such products as carpeting, towels, cord and twine, automotive upholstery, reinforcing materials, bulletproof vests, and decorative braids.

Although a large share of textile products is used in the production of apparel, nontraditional uses, such as in highway construction and the manufacture of fire resistant housing panels, are growing rapidly. Textile mills are classified by type of product or process. The major processes of textile production include yarn spinning, weaving, knitting, and tufting.

Weaving finishing, yarn, and thread mills employ more than half of all workers in the industry. Workers in weaving mills use looms to transform yarns into cloth, a process that has been known for centuries.

Yarns form the basis for most textile production and are made of such natural fibres as cotton, wool, cahemere, camel hair, linen, silk or such synthetic fibers as polyester, polyamid, acrylic, dacron, etc. Yarns also can be made of thin strips of plastic, paper, or metal.

Knitting interlocks a series of loops of one or more yarns to form familiar goods, such as sweaters. However, unlike the knitting done with hand-held needles. Knitting in the textile industry is performed on automated machines. Many consumer items, such as socks, panty hose, and underwear, are produced from knitted fabric. Knitting mills account for one-fourth of employment in the industry.

Regardless of the process used, mills in the textile industry are rapidly modernizing, as new investments in automation and information technology have been made necessary by growing domestic and international competition. Finns also have responded to competition by developing new products and services. For example, some manufacturers are producing textiles developed from fibers made from recycled materials. These innovations have had a wide effect across the industry. Advanced machinery is boosting productivity levels in textiles, costing some workers their jobs, while fundamentally changing the nature of work for others. New technology also has led to broad and increasingly technical training for workers throughout the industry. The emphasis in the industry is shifting from mass production to flexible manufacturing. Firms are concentrating on systems that allow small quantities to be produced with minimum lead-time. This flexibility brings consumer goods to retailers significantly faster than before. Information technology allows the retail industry to rapidly assess its needs and communicate them back through the apparel manufacturer to textile firms.
^ 2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Translate the part of the text in italics in a written form.
4. Retell the text according to your plan.
Comprehension skills.
X Listen to the text “Computer Infections”:

Remember the words:
to instill – проникати

to attach – пристосовувати

software – програмне забезпечення

to run – працювати

to reproduce – відтворювати

to wreck – руйнувати

havoc – руйнування, спустошення

to replicate – копіювати

worm – черв'як

to scan – сканувати

security hole –

to claim – заявляти, вимагати

to erase - стирати

traits - риси

^ 1. Define if the statements are True or False:
1) An e-mail virus does not move around in e-mail messages and does not mail itself to dozens of people in the victim’s e-mail address book.

2) A worm is small piece of software that uses computer network and security holes to replicate itself.

3) A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that a specific security hole and starts replicating form there.

4) Trojan horses have many ways to replicate automatically.
^ 2. Answer the questions:

1) What is a computer virus.

2) What is a Trojan horse.
Unit 7

Text A

Systems for the Textile and Apparel Industry

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary

CAD is industry specific design system using computer as a tool. CAD is used to design anything from an aircraft to knitwear. Originally CAD was used in designing high precision machinery, but slowly it found its way in other industries. In 1970's it made an entry in the textile and apparel industry. Most companies abroad have now integrated some form of CAD into their design and production process.

Automation is not only used for substituting the labour, it is also adopted for improving quality and producing quantity in lesser time. However, a CAD system is only as good (or as bad) as the designer working on it. Computer only speeds up the process of say repeat making, colour changing, motif manipulation etc.

Textile Design Systems. Woven textiles are used by designers and merchandisers for fabrics for home furnishing and for men-women-children wear.

Most fabrics can be designed using a CAD system for textiles. Similarly embroideries are also developed at CAD workstations.

Knitted Fabrics. Some systems specialise in knitwear production and final knitted design can be viewed on screen with indication of all stitch formation. For instance a CAD program will produce a pullover graph that will indicate information on amount of yarn needed by colour for each piece. Another example of the new technology in the industries using a yarn scanner which is attached to the computer scans a thousand meters of yarn and then simulates a knitted/ woven fabric on-screen. This simulation will show how the fabric will look like if woven from that yarn.

Printed Fabrics. The process involves use of computers in design, development and manipulation of motif. The motif can then be resized, recoloured, rotated or multiplied depending on the designer's goal. Textures and weave structures can be indicated so that printout either on paper or actual fabric looks very much the way the final product will look.

Sketch Pad Systems. These are graphic programmes that allow the designer to use pen or stylus on electronic pad or tablet thereby creating freehand images which are then stored in the computer. The end product is no different from those sketches made on paper with pencil.

Texture Mapping: 3D Draping Software. This technology allows visualisation of fabric on the body. Texture mapping is a process by which fabric can be draped over a form in a realistic way. The pattern of the cloth is contoured to match the form underneath it. The designer starts with an image of a model wearing a garment. Each section of the garment is outlined from seam line to seam line. Then a swatch of new fabric created in textile design system is laid over the area and the computer automatically fills in the area with new colour or pattern. The result is the original silhouette worn by original model in a new fabric.

Embroidery Systems. The designs used for embroidery can be incorporated on the fabric for making garment. For this special computerised embroidery machines are used. Designers can create their embroidery designs or motifs straight on the computer or can work with scanned images of existing designs. All they need to do is assign colour and stitch to different parts of the design. This data is then fed into an embroidery machine with one or multiple heads for stitching.
Vocabulary
CAD-computer aided design – конструювання за допомогою комп'ютера

tool – знаряддя, інструмент

aircraft – літак

knitwear – трикотаж

high precision machinery – високо точне устаткування

production – виробництво

substitute – замінити

improve – поліпшити

quality – якість

quantity – кількість

to speed up – прискорити

motif – орнамент

woven textiles – ткані матеріали

merchandiser – продавець

furnishing – обстановка

embroidery – вишивка

stitch formation – формування стібків

wear – одяг

pullover – светр, пуловер

yarn – пряжа

to simulate – моделювати

to involve – включати

development – розробка

motif – візерунок

to resize – змінювати розмір

goal – мета, ціль

texture – текстура

weave structure – структура переплетіння

printout – малюнок

to look – виглядати

stylus – гравірувальна голка

electronic pad (tablet) – дошка

freehand – від ручки (рукою)

to store – зберігати

sketch – ескіз

mapping – схематичне зображення (відтворення)

pattern – лекало; візерунок

to outline – малювати контур

swatch –взірець

embroidery – вишивка

to assign – передавати (колір)

to stitch – шити, зшивати

to feed - подавати
^ II Answer the following questions:
1) What is CAD?

2) What is it used for?

3) When did CAD system make entry in the textile and apparel industry?

4) Can most fabrics be designed using a CAD system for textiles?

5) Are embroideries also developed at CAD workstation?

6) How is a CAD system used in knitwear production?

7) How are computers used in fabrics printing?

8) What are sketch Pad Systems?

9) What does the system of Texture Mapping allow to do?

10) What are special computerized embroidery machines used for?
^ III Match the terms:
specific design system – високоточне устаткування

high precision machinery – особа система конструювання

apparel industry – трикотажне виробництво

textile industry – текстильна промисловість

knitwear production – індустрія одягу

stitch formation – кількість пряжі

amount of yarn – формування стібків

scan – представити візуально

simulate – сканувати

visualization – моделювати

^ IV Translate into Ukrainian:
knitwear, design, production process, textile, apparel, woven textiles, embroidery, yarn, simulate, involve, weave structures, store, texture mapping, seam line, scanned images.

V Translate into English:
система комп'ютерного проектування, кількість, якість, пряжа, процес виробництва, моделювання візерунка, чоловічий одяг, одяг для жінок, позначення на екрані, кінцевий продукт, електронна дошка, створювати, зображення, виготовлення одягу.
^ VI Translate the sentences into English:
1) У системі комп'ютеризованого проектування комп'ютер слугує інструментом.

2) Спочатку система комп’ютеризованого проектування передбачалось для використання проектування високоточного устаткування.

3) Автоматизація не тільки замінює людську працю, але й пристосована для поліпшення якості та збільшення кількості продукції за короткий відрізок часу.

4) Окремі системи спеціально створені для трикотажного виробництва, де кінцевий продукт можна побачити на екрані.

5) Спеціальний сканер та комп'ютер перевіряють тисячі метрів пряжі, а потім моделюють на екрані тканини або трикотажні полотна.

6) Процес нанесення візерунка на тканину включає використання комп'ютера у його проектуванні, розробці, зміненні самого візерунка та його кольорів.
^ VII Practise asking questions. Ask all possible questions to the different members of the sentence.
1) Graphic programmers allow the designer to use pen or stylus on electronic pad or tablet thereby creating images which are then stored in the computer.

2) The designs used for embroidery can be incorporated on the fabric for making garment.
VIII Speak on the topic “Systems for the Textile and apparel Industry”
IX Rendering
^ 1. Read the text and be ready to answer the questions:
1) What is computerized inspection systems needed for?

2) What did the researches have to know about textile manufacturing?

3) What was the result of their investigation?

4) What model did the researches develop and what for?

5) Has the device been patented and licensed?

6) What is the cast of the commercial device?
^ Text B

Computerized inspection system

Today's textile mills use high-speed looms to weave yarn into cloth. Inspectors in the mill manually feel and visually examine the cloth, looking for defects.

Because of current off-line inspection methods, potentially thousands of yards of defective, off-quality material could be made before the problem is recognized.

Therefore, to provide 100% reliable inspection, new technologies are needed to automate and improve the current process for inspecting fabric while it is being woven.

Researchers first had to familiarize themselves with the complexities of textile manufacturing. They had to know about cotton and polymers, different weave types, and yarn thicknesses. They observed the weaving process. So they set out to develop an optical device to measure pick density and to locate in real time fabric flaws The result was the pick measurement device, which is cheaper than conventional camera systems used for textile inspection and easier to install on existing looms.

The pick measurement device prototype tested in Oak Ridge was installed at the Glen Raven plant in Burnsville, North Carolina. It was then moved to the Institute of Textile Technology""(ITT) in Charlottesville for final testing. The device has been patented and licensed to ITT, which will help manufacture, market, and sell the device to the textile industry. The cost of the commercial device is estimated to be $1200 and the cost of using it is estimated to be 1% of that for a human inspector. The device is believed to find widespread use in the textile industry and to help make textile manufacturers more competitive in both U.S. and world markets.
^ 2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Translate the part of the text in italics in a written form.
4. Retell the text according to your plan.
Comprehension skills.
X Listen to the text “Apparel industry and computers”:

Remember the words and phrases:
digitizing systems – цифрові системи

darts – виточки

pleats – складки

flair – кльош

preexisting patterns – існуючи лекала

sample – зразок

to be graded in size – оцінювати за розміром

laying patterns – розкладка лекал

wastage of fabric – витрати тканин

cutting operations – розкрійні операції

marker making system – система маркування
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