I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary




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2. Make a plan of the text.
^ 3. Translate the part of the text in italics in a written form.
4. Retell the text according to your plan.
Comprehension skills.
X Listen to the text “How has new technology changed your life”

Remember the words:

to gain speed – досягати швидкості

vigilance – пильність

responsibility – відповідальність

spammer – спамер

to get rid – позбавлятися

to sustain – підтримувати

gadget – штучка

fragile – тендітний

sword – меч

Listen to the text and define if the statements are true or False:
1. The rapidly field of electronics led to construction of the fourth general-purpose electronic computer.

2. The use of the transistor in computers began in the late 1970s.

3. The personal or microcomputer is a very expensive machine.

4. A digital computer is a system composed of fife distinct elements a central processing unit, input devices, memory storage devices, output devices and communications network.
Listen to the text once more and give answers the questions:

1) What did the appearance of computers mark?

2) What is a digital computer?

Unit 4

Text A

The internet

^ I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer in another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet switching.

Owing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet-switching network already survived a war. It was the Iraqi computer network which was not knocked out during the Gulf War.

Most of the Internet host computers (more that 50%) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions, and their number is growing by thousands each month worldwide.

The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher.

In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and can do it very cheaply.

But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centers already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled -but inexpensive - Chinese computer-aided-design specialists.

However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data are constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. In spite of the fact that there are many strong encoding programs available, nearly all the information being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding, i.e., "in the clear". But when it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these encoding programs may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. However, there are still both commercial and technical problems which will take time to be resolved.
Vocabulary

network – сіть

to embrace – охоплювати

user – користувач

to design – конструювати

to survive – вижити

path – шлях

in touch with – бути у контакті

route – шлях

packet switching – пакетне підключення

to be knocked out – бути виведеним з роботи

host computer – домашній комп'ютер

fairly accurately – досить точно

worldwide – по всьому світі

service – послуга

access – доступ

sending and receiving e-mail – посилання та отримування електронної пошти

available – доступний

reliable – надійний

communicate – спілкуватися

drastically – значно

garment – одяг

computer-aided-design – проектування за допомогою комп'ютера

remain – залишатися

security – безпека

destination – призначення

route – маршрут, траса

intercept – перехоплювати

in spite of – незважаючи

encoding – кодування

conduct – проводити

to resolve- вирішувати

^ II Answer the following questions:
1) When and how did the Internet begin?

2) What was Internet designed for?

3) In what way will any two computers in the Internet be able to stay with each other?

4) What happens if some computers on the network are knocked out?

5) How many Internet users are there in the world?

6) What is the most popular Internet service?

7) What facilities does Internet provide?

8) Do people face any problem while using the Internet?

^ III Match the words:
global network – технологія

technology – глобальна сітка

packet – підвищувати

send – отримувати

receive – посилати

provide – безпека

route – безпека

increase – пакет

transmit – шлях

security – забезпечувати

^ IV Translate into Ukrainian:
Computer network, user, military, experiment, to design, path, to survive, to knock out, host computer, service, communicate, reliable, provide, to direct.
V Translate into English:
глобальна комп'ютерна сітка, користувач, ядерна війна, домашній комп'ютер, електронна пошта, повідомлення, надійний, телекомунікаційна система, комерційний, безпека, комунікації, конструювання за допомогою комп'ютера, кодування, передача.
VI Translate the sentences into English:
1. Завдяки цій технології, якщо комп'ютер заблокований, інформація може обминати його.

2. Багато домашніх комп'ютерів розташовані більш ніж у 100 країнах світу.

3. Проте ніхто точно не знає скільки людей користується Інтернетом.

4. Електронна пошта – це найбільш поширена послуга Інтернету.

5. Комерційні користувачі спілкуються через Інтернет досить дешево.

6. Різні компанії та фірми рекламують свою продукцію через Інтернет.

7. В Інтернеті є свої магазини, де можна купити все, що забажаєш.

VII Practise asking questions.

Ask all possible questions to the different members of the sentence.
1. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages.

2. In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these countries.

VIII Speak on the topic “The Internet”
IX Rendering
^ 1. Read the text “Scientific and Technological Progress” and be ready to answer the following questions:

1) What can you say about computer literacy?

2) What do computers give people?

3) Who are computer addicts – boys or girls?

4) Is there any opinion about computer games?

5) Is there any reason the worry about computer addiction?

6) Do computers improve our social life?

^ Text B

Who are Computer users
Computer addicts are the minority of computer users but there is no doubt that more and more young people are computer literate. Computer studies is a subject in many schools and many young people have personal computers. About one in three hundred computer owners spend almost all their time using computers.

Ninety six per cent of them are males of all ages. All of them spend an average of twenty hours per week on home computers. The majority of the adults also use computers at work. All the computer addicts are very intelligent. They have been interested in science and technology from a very early age, and they are usually very shy people who like being alone.

Usage of computers gives them confidence. They love debugging and solving problems, developing programs and love learning programming languages. They learnt to communicate with other users through computer networks and the people they met in school and work think of them as of computer experts. A few spend their time "hacking" and one addict left a message on a computer of Buckingham House.

A survey in a school showed that fewer girls are interested in computers because girls are less likely to have a computer. Even if they have one, they use them less frequently than boys. Possibly it is because we think of computers as something to do with maths and science, which are traditionally "male" subjects. Possibly it is because most of the computer teachers are men, who give the girls less attention. Possibly parents think it is less important for girls to have computer skills.

Some parents worry about computer games because they think their children won't be able to communicate with real people in the real world. But parents do not need to worry. According to research computer addicts usually do well after they have left school.

Parents also do not need to worry that computer addiction will make their children become unfriendly and unable to communicate with people. It is not the computer that makes them shy. In fact, what they know about computers improves their social lives. They become experts and others come to them for help and advice.

For most children computer games are a craze. Like any other craze, such as skate­boarding, the craze is short-lived. It provides harmless fun and a chance to escape.

If we didn't have these computer addicts, we wouldn't have modern technology. They are the inventors of tomorrow.

^ 2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Translate the part of the text in italics in a written form.
4. Retell the text according to your plan.
Comprehension skills.
X Listen to the text “Business on the Internet”

Remember the words:
conduct business – керувати бізнесом

handling goods – транспортування товарів

a substitute – заміна

consumer – споживач

field – галузь

ease – поліпшення

price calculations – вирахування ціни

competitive market – конкуруючий ринок

medium – середовище

advertising – реклама

sale – продаж

purchasing – купівля

turnover - обіг
^ 1. Define if the statements are True or False:
1. These days you cannot conduct business without in reality handling goods or cash.

2. E-commerce operates only from business to business.

3. Sending data over a network is less efficient than traditional methods.

4. The Internet is a management tool that is accessible to all businesses.

^ 2. Answer the questions:

Does business-to-business e-commerce include electronic data exchange, a speedy, automated, system of information exchange between companies, working closely together?

3. What is E-business in reality?

Unit 5

Text A

Computer Types

^ I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary

There are a lot of terms used to describe computers. Most of these words imply the size, expected use or capability of the computer. While the term computer can be applied to virtually any device that has a microprocessor in it, most people think of a computer as a device that receives input from the user through a mouse or keyboard, processes it in some fashion and displays the result on a screen.

•PC - The personal computer defines a computer designed for general use by one person.

Desktop - A PC that is not designed for portability. The expectation with desktop systems is that you will set the computer up in a permanent location. Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than portable brethren.

« ^ Laptop - Also called notebooks, laptops are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory, and hard drive disk in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.

Palmtops (handhelds) are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on touch screen technology for user input. Palmtops are typically smaller than a paperback novel, very lightweight with a reasonable battery life.

Workstation - A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of tasks, such as 3D Graphics.

Server - A computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a network. Servers usually have powerful processors, lots of memory and large hard drives.

Mainframe - In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor! As the size of computers has diminished while the power has increased, the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favour of enterprise server.

Supercomputer - This type of computer usually costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars. Although some supercomputers are single computer systems, most are comprised of multiple high performance computers working in parallel as a single system. The best known supercomputers are built by Cray Supercomputers. In fact, for many years supercomputer customers were an exclusive group: agencies of the federal government. The federal government uses supercomputers for tasks that require mammoth data manipulation, such as worldwide weather forecasting and weapons research. But now supercomputers are moving toward the mainstream, for activities as varied as stock analysis, automobile design, special effects for movies, and even sophisticated artworks

Wearable - The latest trend in computing is wearable computers. Essentially, common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, and calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches, cell phones, visors and even clothing!
Vocabulary
term – термін

to imply – мати на увазі

virtually – фактично

to receive – отримувати

to display – відображати, зображувати

in some fashion – якимсь чином

designed – сконструйований

portability – портативність

power – потужність

versatility – різноманітність

laptop – ноутбук

to integrate – об'єднувати

average – середній

flash memory – флешка

to provide – забезпечувати

to diminish – зменшувати

in favour – на користь

to comprise – складати

multiple – велика кількість

mammoth – велетенський

weapons – зброя

mainstream – загальний потік

sophisticated – складні

wearable – той що носиться

visor – козирок кепки

clothing - одяг
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