I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary




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^ III Match the words:
discovery- застосування

development- виробництво

utilization- винахід

manufacturing- розробка

domain- засоби

storage- передача

transmission- застосування

encompass- відкриття

energy conversion- переробка продуктів

food processing- сфера

facilities- охоплювати
^ IV Translate into English:
Діяльність, спеціалізація, потреби людини, двигун, насос, інформація, явище, науковий, застосування, вплив, охоплювати, комп'ютерні технології, автоматичне управління, перетворення енергії, обробка, виробництво, управління.
^ V Translate into Ukrainian:
Engineering, utilization, mechanism, heating, air-conditioning, domain, labour-saving, devices, invention, power, instrumentation, processing, manufacture, properties, explosives, cleaner, raw material, employ, comprise, water, permanent.

VI Translate into English:
1) Інженерна діяльність може бути поділена на окремі спеціалізації.

2) Інженери розробляють машини для вироблення енергії та її застосування.

3) Електротехніка стосується створення, накопичення, передачі та використання електричної енергії та інформації.

4) Галузь електротехніки включає інформативні системи, комп'ютерні технології, перетворення енергії, автоматичне управління та інші спеціалізації.

5) Промислове виробництво – це виробництво споживчих товарів із сировини.

6) Інженер цивільного будівництва створює будинки, мости, дамби, швидкісні дороги, тунелі тощо.

7) Результати роботи інженера цивільного будівництва найбільш видимі у їх постійній формі.
^ VII Practise asking questions. Ask all possible questions to the different members of the sentence.
1. Most of the electrical engineering activities may be identified with power or communications.

2. Today, the impact of a power failure graphically illustrates our dependence on electrical power.
VIII Speak on the topic “Realms of Engineering”
IX Rendering
1. Read the text “Scientific and Technological Progress” and be to answer the following questions:
1) What is the spectrum of the engineers activity?

2) What does the research and development engineer require?

3) Should the design engineer be a creative person?

4) Why do the design engineers work in a large team?

5) What other specialists do such teams include?

6) What specialists are responsible for the implementation of a completed design?

7) Is a sound knowledge of materials, methods manufacture, time estimation and the logistics of movements important?

8) Knowledge of what domain is needed in the area of installation, operation and maintenance?

9) What is the responsibility of an engineer?

10) When do many engineers move into managerial positions?
^ Text B
Engineering Work
In any one area of engineering there is a wide range of functions that the engineer may participate in. The spectrum includes research and development, design, pro­duction and construction, installation, operation and maintenance, and sales and management. In general, the research and development engineer requires, besides a firm grounding in the fundamentals of his area, an easy familiarity with analytical and experimental techniques. A natural curiosity, a creative bent, and considerable stamina is essential.

The design engineer has somewhat similar requirements, with particular accent on creativity. He also needs a broad understanding of such topics as engineering eco­nomics, optimization, and methods of manufacture, along with a particular sensitivity toward human needs. Design activity is extremely broad, so the individual is most likely to find himself one of a large team, particularly in a complex project. The team may, include specialists in theoretical analysis, testing, computation, optimization, and esthetic design.

It is production and construction engineers who, on any project, are responsible for the implementation of a completed design. They will have to work initially with design engineers and then with technicians actually to produce the hardware itself from the specified raw materials. A sound knowledge of materials, methods of manufacture, time estimation, and the logistics of movements of materials is important.

The area of installation, operation, and maintenance may need knowledge from civil, mechanical electrical, chemical, or other branches of engineering, depending on the nature of the plant. A large plant may employ specialists from these branches, though a small plant may tend to employ engineers comfortable in several areas. Here the responsibility is to ensure that the equipment is installed correctly, brought into operation, and effectively maintained. The engineer must develop effective maintenance and replacement schedules and requires some knowledge of economics. Aspects of safety and pollution control could be important.

Many engineers after several years in one or more of the above areas, eventually move into managerial positions. Here they quickly discover the merit of some knowl­edge of economics, financial management, and labor policies. They may need consid­erable courage to plan effectively and make sound, far-reaching decisions. In this regard the engineer's technical background serves him well, but he will have to acquire a familiarity with business administration also.
^ 2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Translate the part of the text in italics in a written form.
4. Retell the text according to your plan.
Comprehension skills.
X Listen to the text “Public Image of Engineering”
Remember the words:

distort- руйнувати

layman- непрофесіонал

to be appreciated- бути оціненим

reaching- досягнення

acceptable solutions- прийнятні рішення

pollution treats- небезпека забруднення

divesting- знищуючий

to assume- передбачати

tool- інструмент, знаряддя.
^ Listen to the text and define if the statements are True or False:
1) The engineer’s public image is not distorted.

2) It is considered that the engineers endeavor is somewhat mechanical.

3) People think that technology is responsible for various pollution threats, for divesting weapons of war.

4) The engineers do not synthesize knowledge from many different areas in reaching acceptable solutions.
Listen to the text once more and give answers the questions:
1) How does a layman tend to view the engineers endeavour?

2) How should technology be realized nowadays?
Unit 3

Text A

The History of computer Development

^ I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary

The rapidly advancing field of electronics led to construction of the first general-purpose electronic computer in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. It was Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer or ENIAC, the device contained 18,000 vacuum tubes and had a speed of several hundred multiplications per minute. Its program was wired into the processor and had to be manually altered.

Later transistors appeared. The use of the transistor in computers began in the late 1950s. It marked the advent of smaller, faster elements than it was possible to create with the use of vacuum-tube machines. Because transistors use less power and have a much longer life, computers alone were improved a lot. They were called second-generation computers.

Components became smaller and the system became less expensive to build.

Modern digital computers are all conceptually similar, regardless of size and shape. Nevertheless, they can be divided into several categories on the basis of cost and performance.

The first one is the personal computer or microcomputer, a relatively low-cost machine, usually of desk-top size. Sometimes they are called laptops. They are small enough to fit in a briefcase. The second is the workstation, a microcomputer with enhanced graphics and communications capabilities that make it especially useful for office work. And the server computers, a large expensive machine with the capability of serving the needs of major business enterprises, government departments, scientific research establishments. The largest and fastest of these are called supercomputers.

A digital computer is not actually a single machine, in the sense that most people think of computers. Instead it is a system composed of five distinct elements: a central processing unit, input devices, memory storage devices, output devices and a communications network, called a «bus» that links all the elements of the system and connects the system itself to the external world.

Talking about a central processing unit or the-heart of computer; it should be noted that there were several generations of microprocessors. The first generation was represented by processing unit Intel 8086. The second generation central processing unit was represented by processing unit Intel 80286, used in IBM PC AT 286. In the end of 80s such computer costs about 25-30 000 rubles in the former USSR. The third generation is represented by Intel 80386, used in IBM PC AT 386. The microprocessors of the fourth generation were used in computers IBM PC AT. 486. There are also central processing units of the fifth generation, used in Intel Pentium 60 and Intel Pentium 66, central processing units of the sixth generation, used in computers Intel Pentium 75,90,100 and 133. Few years ago appeared central processing units of seventh and eighth generations.

Computer speeds are measured in gigahertz today. Recently, an optical central processing unit has been invented, which is capable of executing trillions discrete operations per second or it is as fast as the speed of light.

So, we are at the threshold of new computer era, when artificial intelligence could be invented. There are no questions with «if», the only question is «when». And time will show us either computers become our best friends or our evil enemies as it is shown in some movies.
Vocabulary

general-purpose computer- комп'ютер загального користування

multiplication- множення

per minute- за хвилину

to be wired into- бути вмонтованим

manually- вручну

to alter- змінювати

advent- поява, виникнення

to mark- відмічати

generation- покоління

vacuum-tube machines – лампові пристрої

digital- цифровий

similar- ідентичний, схожий

cost- ціна

performance- дія, функціонування

relatively- відносно

desk-top- клавіатура

laptop- ноутбук

briefcase- портфель

workstation- офісний комп'ютер

enhanced- посилений

capabilities- властивості, можливості

server computer- сервер

enterprises- підприємство

scientific research establishments- науково-дослідницьки установи

in the sense that- в тому розумінні, що

to compose- складати

distinct-чіткий

a central processing unit- центральний процесор

input device- пристрій вводу інформації

memory storage device- запам'ятовуючий пристрій

output device- пристрій видачі інформації

communications network- система комунікації

“bus”- шина

to link- з'єднувати

to connect- об'єднувати

external world- зовнішній світ

to represent- представляти

speed- швидкість

to measure- вимірювати

threshold- на порозі

artificial intelligence- штучний інтелект
^ II Answer the following questions:
1) When and where was the first general – purpose computer constructed?

2) When did transistors appear?

3) How can modern digital computers be divided in to?

4) What is actually a digital computer?

5) What is the of the computer “heart”?

6) How many generations of computers do you know?

7) What is the capability of an optical central processing unit invented recently?
^ III Match the words:
program- властивість

low-cost- персональний комп'ютер

desk-top- пристрій

laptop- цифровий

power- пам'ять

expensive- дешевий

capability- дорогий

digital- недорогий

memory- клавіатура

device- програма
^ IV Translate into Ukrainian:
Advancing, field, construction, generation, contain, multiplications, processor, alter, improve, similar, unit, device, communication, connect, represent.
V Translate into English:
Створення, комп'ютер першого покоління, транзистор, винахід, удосконалення, сучасний, схожий, розмір, форма, на основі, портфель, урядові департаменти, блок введення, блок вилучання інформації.
^ VI Translate into English:
1) Розвиток електроніки привів до створення комп'ютерів першого покоління.

2) Програма вмонтована у процесор та замінюється вручну.

3) Перший комп'ютер був ламповий, їх кількість склала 18000.

4) Завдяки тому, що транзистори споживають менше енергії та більш довговічні, комп'ютери постійно вдосконалювалися.

5) Компоненти комп'ютерів ставали меншими, а системи ставали дешевшими.

6) Комп'ютери, що мають великі комунікаційні та графічні можливості дуже корисні для офісної роботи.

7) Комп'ютерний сервер - дуже дорога машина, яка може обслуговувати потреби підприємств, урядових установ, науково-дослідних закладів.
^ VII Practise asking questions. Ask all possible questions to the different members of the sentence.
1. Components became smaller and the system became less expensive to build.

2. The rapidly advancing field of electronics led to construction of the first general-purpose electronic in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania.
VIII Speak on the topic “Computers in our life”
IX Rendering
^ 1. Read the text “Computers in our life” and be ready to answer the following questions:
1) What replaced individual transistor in computers?

2) Why did it become possible to design more components into a single computer circuit?

3) What did manufactures use integrated circuit technology for?

4) What will make the operation of computer easier?

5) What occurred in the area quantum computing in the late 1990s?

6) What is the advantage of quantum computers?

7) What will communications between computer users and networks benefit fom?

8) What are the benefits of computer using nowadays?
^ Text B

Computers in our life
In the late 1960s integrated circuits, tiny transistors and other electrical components arranged on a single chip of silicon, replaced individual transistors in computers.

Integrated circuits became miniaturized, enabling more components to be designed into a single computer circuit. In the 1970s refinements in integrated circuit technology led to the development of the modern microprocessor, integrated circuits that contained thousands of transistors. Modern microprocessors contain as many as 10 million transistors.

^ Manufacturers used integrated circuit technology to build smaller and cheaper computers.

Computers will become more advanced and they will also become easier to use. Reliable speech recognition will make the operation of a computer easier. Virtual reality, the technology of interacting with a computer using all of the human senses, will also contributes to better human and computer, interfaces. Breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing in the late 1990s. Scientists used a branch of physics called quantum mechanics, which describe the activity of subatomic particles (particles that make up atoms), as the basis for quantum computing. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of times faster than current computers, because they take advantage of the laws that govern the behavior of subatomic particles. These laws allow quantum computers to examine all possible answers to a query at one time. Future uses of quantum computers could include code breaking and large database queries. Communications between computer users and networks will benefit from new technologies such as broadband communication systems that can carry significantly more data and carry it faster, to and from the vast interconnected databases that continue to grow in number and type.

Very recently, computers have offered the chance to completely remove the
early morning commute and rush hour. Some people have decided to work
from home using their home computer. Now, you see commercials everywhere
about people quitting their job and working from home and making tons of
money. Computers can be used for just about anything. From providing access
to card catalogs, helping with homework, help with your job, connect you with
other people all over the world, research the most obscure of topics, or even
store all your personal information and data such as pictures, videos, and
songs. People everywhere use computers for different reasons. You can use a
network for almost anything these days.
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