I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary




Скачати 477.46 Kb.
НазваI. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary
Сторінка1/8
Дата конвертації06.07.2013
Розмір477.46 Kb.
ТипДокументы
skaz.com.ua > Інформатика > Документы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8
Unit 1

Text A

What is Engineering

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary

Ask a number of people what the word “engineering” conveys to them and you will be surprised at the differences in their answers.

The question is difficult to clarify in a few words, and precise definitions are difficult to find. Engineering is a profession concerned with the application of the universe to create devices, systems, and structures to satisfy the needs of mankind. This is a very general and not completely satisfactory definition.

The engineering courses fall in the general areas of mechanics of solids, properties of materials, mechanics of fluids, thermodynamics, electrical science, transfer and rate processes, and systems. Finally come the design courses which put it all together. It is this design discipline which exemplifies engineering in action, for it illustrates how engineers solve practical problems by applying their scientific knowledge and skills in the iterative decision-making process. This is how engineers adapt science to human needs.

The words scientist and engineer are frequently used interchangeably. In general, scientists are concerned with extending our knowledge about the fundamental laws of nature, while engineers apply these laws to practical problems.

Many engineers are conducting what might be called pure fundamental research, perhaps not directly associated with specific practical problems. The best we can do here is to recognize an ever-changing spectrum of activity ranging from the fundamental to the applied one. The range runs from pure science to engineering.

The implementation of engineering solutions is carried out by a variety of technicians who make, install, and maintain the so-called hardware itself, usually under some form of supervision. These people are often traditionally referred to as engineers, though today the word technician is more apt. Today the typical engineer is a college graduate, quite often with an advanced degree. He is engaged in some combination of research and engineering design or development or in other words with the creation of new things or the improvement of existing things. Central to his achievements is the process of design.
Vocabulary
Engineering- техніка, інженерно- будівельна сфера, машинобудування

at random- наугад

convey- виражати ідею (думку)

definition- визначення

concern- мати відношення

application- застосовування

create- творити, створювати

device- прилад, пристрій

fall in- розподіляти

solid- тверде тіло

property- властивість

fluid- рідина

transfer- перенос, передача

rate- темп, швидкість

exemplify- бути прикладом

in action- в дії

apply- застосувати

iterative- що повторюється

adapt- адаптувати, пристосовувати

frequently- часто

interchangeably -взаємозамінюючий

conduct-проводити

research-дослідження

associate-асоціювати, зв'язувати

specific- особливий

recognize-розпізнавати

ever-changing-постійно змінюється

applied-прикладний

implementation-реалізація, втілення

solution-рішення

carry out-виконувати

variety-цілий ряд, багато

install-встановлювати

maintain-обслуговувати, ремонтувати

hardware-механічне устаткування

supervision-керівництво

be referred -(тут) називається

apt-підходящий

advanced-передовий, новітній

degree-вчений ступінь

be engaged-займатися (чимось)

development-розробка

creation-створення

improvement-удосконалення

existing-існуючий

achievement-досягнення

II Answer the following questions:
1. What is engineering as a problem?

2. What general areas do engineering courses fall in?

3. What are scientists and engineers concerned with?

4. Do engineers conduct fundamental research?

5. Who is the implementation of engineering carried out by?

6. What is an engineer engaged in?

7. Is the process of design in the centre of an engineer’s achievement?
III Match the words:
application - досягнення

device - створення

course - діяльність

design - створення

adapt - пристосовувати

law- закон

conduct- проводити

activity- курс

to be engaged – приймати участь

creation - закон

achievement – застосування
^ IV Translate into English:
визначення, тверде тіло, прилад, темп, застосувати, проводити, прикладний, встановлювати, удосконалення, досягнення, створення, дослідження, відноситися, фундаментальний, курс.
^ V Translate into Ukrainian:
apt, advanced, degree, development, adapt, associate, recognize, application, install, hardware, maintain, supervision, fluid, frequently, solution.
VI Translate into English:
1. Ви будете здивовані їх відповідями.

2. Це узагальнене і повністю відповідне пояснення (визначення).

3. Вчені займаються розширенням наших знань щодо основних законів природи.

4. Діяльність інженера знаходиться у спектрі від фундаментальних до прикладних наук.

5. Поєднання наукових досліджень з інженерними розробками-це створення нових або удосконалення існуючих речей.

VII Practise asking questions. Ask all possible questions to the different members of the sentence.
1) Scientists are concerned with extending our knowledge about the fundamental laws of nature.

2) Today the typical engineer is college graduate, quite often with an advanced degree.
VIII Speak on the topic “Engineering”
IX Rendering
^ 1. Read the text “Scientific and Technological Progress” and be ready to answer the following questions:
- What accelerates the development of civilization and helps us in our cooperation with nature?

- What is the domain of the scientists’ activity?

- What are the great inventions of the beginning of the 20-th century?

- How do we call the 20-th century?

- What era do we live in?
^ Text B
Scientific and Technological Progress
It's difficult to overestimate the role of science and technology in our life. They accelerate the development of civilization and help us in our co-operation with nature.

Scientists investigate the laws of the universe, discover the secrets of nature, and apply their knowledge in practice improving the life of people. Let's compare our life nowadays with the life of people at the beginning of the 20th century. It has changed beyond recognition. Our ancestors hadn't the slightest idea of the trivial things created by the scientific progress that we use in our every day life. I mean refrigerators, TV sets, computers, microwave ovens, radio telephones, what not.

They would seem miracles to them that made our life easy, comfortable and pleasant. On the other hand, the great inventions of the beginning of the 20th century, I mean radio, airplanes, combustion and jet engines have become usual things and we can't imagine our life without them. A century is a long period for scientific and technological progress, as it's rather rapid. Millions of investigations the endless number of outstanding discoveries has been made. The 20-th century has had several names that were connected with a certain era in science and technology. At first it was called the atomic age due to the discovery of the splitting of the atom. Then it became the age of the conquest of space when for the first time in the history of mankind a man overcame the gravity and entered the Universe. And now we live in the information era when the computer network embraces the globe and connects not only the countries and space stations but a lot of people all over the world. All these things prove the power and the greatest progressive role of science in our life.

But every medal has its reverse. And the rapid scientific progress has aroused a number of problems that are a matter of our great concern. These are ecological problems, the safety of nuclear power stations, the nuclear war threat, and the responsibility of a scientist. But still we are grateful to the outstanding men of the past and the present who have courage and patience to disclose the secrets of the Universe.
^ 2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Translate the part of the text in italics in a written form.
4. Retell the text according to your plan.
Comprehension skills.
X Listen to the text “Engineering as a profession”

Remember the words:
Endeavour - діяльність

conversion- перетворення

to call for- потребувати

attributes- атрибути (супутні характеристики)

conformity- відповідність
^ 1. Define if the statements are True or False:
a) Many new areas of engineering endeavor, which come across the traditional lines, are today attracting attention.

b) A mechanical or electrical engineer may be employed by the aerospace, chemical, or mining industries, or by many others.

c) Computer science, information engineering, system engineering and operations research are not among the fields of recent interest.

d) Engineering is not compared to medicine and law in discussions of professional status.
^ 2. Answer the questions:

- Want field of engineering calls for a combination of mechanical, electrical and often chemical engineering?

- Want fields of engineering are of recent interest?

Unit 2

Text A

Realms is Engineering

^ I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary

Traditionally, engineering activities have been grouped into certain areas of specialization. These originated as civil and military engineering, catering to man's early needs. Scientific discoveries and their development gave birth to a variety of fields of application such as mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering.

Mechanical Engineering develops machines for the generation and utilization of power. Mechanical engineers design turbines, engines, pumps, \and their ancillary mechanisms and structures. Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, transportation, manufacturing, and vibration are some areas falling within their domain. The art of mechanical engineering dates back to the labor-saving devices and military machines of ancient times, but it received its greatest boost in the eighteenth century with the invention of the steam engine and industrial machinery, which marked the onset of the industrial revolution.

Electrical Engineering, in general, deals with the creation, storage, transmission, and utilization of electrical energy and information. Most of its activities may be identified with power or communications. Electrical engineering is of recent origin, dating back only to the eighteenth century, when electrical phenomena were first subjected to scientific scrutiny. After this, useful applications were quickly identified. Today, the impact of a power failure graphically illustrates our dependence on elec­trical power. The field encompasses information systems, computer technology, energy conversion, automatic control, instrumentation, and many other special­ties.

Chemical engineering encompasses the broad field of raw material and food pro­cessing and the operation of associated facilities. It is mainly involved with the manufacture and properties of materials such as fuels, plastics, rubber, explosives, paints, and cleaners.

Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, the production and use of metals, has two distinct branches. One deals with the location, extraction, and treatment of ores to obtain base metals, and the other with the transformation of these metals into useful forms and with the study of techniques for improving their performance in specific applications.

Aerospace Engineering combines two fields, aeronautical and astronautical
engineering. The former is concerned with the aerodynamics, structure and propulsion of vehicles designed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere.

Agricultural Engineering is one of the earliest forms of engineering practiced by man. It uses agricultural machinery, irrigation, and surveying and deals with the many associated problems of crop raising and animal husbandry.

Industrial Engineering is mainly concerned with the manufacture of useful commodities from raw materials. The management of men, materials, machines, and money are all within his endeavor in achieving effective production. Plant layout, automation, work methods, and quality control are included, and, more than in most of the other traditional branches of engineering, the industrial engineer needs to have some grounding in psychology and dealing with personnel.

Civil Engineering is one of the oldest branches of the engineering profession. It covers a wide field, and many subsidiary branches have grown from it. The civil engineer is mainly employed in the creation of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, highways, harbours, and tunnels. He is usually knowledgeable in hydraulics, structures, building materials, surveying, and soil mechanics. One important area comprises water supply drainage, and sewage disposal. More than any other branch of engineering, the results of the civil engineer's efforts are the most visible in a permanent form.
Vocabulary
realm- область, сфера

originate- походити

cater- відповідати (чомусь)

ancillary- супутні

heating- нагрівання (тепло)

pump- насос

fall- підпадати

domain- область, сфера

device- прибор, пристрій

boost- (тут) розвиток

invention- винахід

steam- пар

engine- двигун

mark- відмічати

creation- створення

storage- зберігання

transmission- передача

subjected (to)- той, що підлягає

scrutiny- критичне вивчення

impact- вплив

dependence- залежність

conversion- передача

instrumentation- апаратура

encompass- містити (в собі)

raw materials- сировина

processing- обробка

facilities- можливості, устаткування

property- властивість

fuel- паливо

explosive- вибухова речовина

cleaner - очисна речовина

ground (in)- навчати основам професії

combine- об'єднувати

concerned with- пов'язаний

propulsion- поштовх, рух

vehicle- транспорт, засіб пересування

relate (to)- мати відношення

irrigation- іригація, осушення (земель)

crop raising- зростання врожаю

husbandry- вирощування

civil- громадянський

cover- охоплювати

subsidiary- допоміжний

harbour- гавань

comprise- включати (в себе)

supply- постачання

sewage- стічні води

disposal- розміщення

visible- видимий

permanent- постійний

mining- горна промисловість

ore- руда

extraction- вилучення

obtain- отримувати

treatment- обробка

techniques- методи
^ II Answer the following questions:
1) What have engineering activities been grouped into?

2) What does mechanical engineering develop?

3) What does electrical engineering deal with?

4) What does chemical engineering encompass?

5) What fields do aerospace engineering combine?

6) What is one of the earliest forms of engineering?

7) What is industrial engineering concerned with?

8) What is one of the oldest branches of the engineering profession?
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

Схожі:

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary iconRead and translate the text

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary iconRead the text and translate the word combinations that follow
Вивільнення електричної енергії, блискавка, заряджений, електричне розрядження, спалах блискавки, вразити будинок (блискавкою), триматись...
I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary iconRead and translate the following word combinations

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary iconTask Read and translate the following sentences into Ukrainian

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary iconRead the text and find out what factors have an impact on our health
Спадковість впливає на розвиток певних хвороб І в різному віці люди страждають від різних хвороб
I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary icon1 Active Vocabulary

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary icon1 Active Vocabulary

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary iconТема 14. Прийом у лікарню. Заповнення історії хвороби >I. Active vocabulary

I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary iconVocabulary Section
В одну мить вона підскочила до хлопця І, схопивши його за руку, зтягнула з залізничної колії
I. Read and translate the text using the vocabulary iconEx Translate the following Ukrainian proper names and surnames
Мета І завдання перекладознавства. Значення науки серед інших перекладацьких дисциплін
Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:
Школьные материалы


База даних захищена авторським правом © 2015
звернутися до адміністрації
skaz.com.ua
Головна сторінка