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Analog Computer

  1. Remember the words:

- installation

- to increase

- efficiency

- concept

- regard

- value

- quantity

- to obtain

- measurement

- application

- accuracy

- variable

- deal


  1. Read and translate the text.

The computer is a universal information processing machine. The installation of computers in certain organizations has already greatly increased the efficiency of these organizations. Computers are a million times faster than humans in performing computing operations.

Analogue and digital computers are now widely used in many fields. The two types of computers differ in fundamental concept. The analogue machine may be variables are represented in the machine by physical quantity and the results is obtained by the measurement of another quantity.

Analogue computers are usually designed for one application, although some machines can be adapted to a range of problems by changing interconnections between their various units. The analogue machine, although limited by the accuracy, can deal with continuous variables.

Analogue computation is applied to solving the behavior of a system. Some kind of analogue computation enables the engineer to obtain approximate solutions to his problems with a speed and ease.

The accuracy of operation of an analogue computer is much below that of a digital computer, but there are several compensating advantages.

Apart from cases that include simulation with actual components, any mechanical, electrical, biological or even economic system dynamics involving motion or variation in time may be studied.


  1. ^ Complete the sentences:

- Today computer have changed…

- Computers can predict tomorrow’s…

- They are a great help to…

- Computers can do maney things we dot but…

- Computer is a multifunctional…


  1. ^ Dramatize the dialogue.

- I have just finished secondary school and I want to work at a factory.

+ That is a very good idea. You may learn to be an opera­tor of the electronic computers like myself. It is a very good profession.

- What can you tell me about the factory where you work?

+ Our factory is very big. It is equipped with modern machines.

- It must be very pleasant to work at such a factory.

+ Certainly it is.

- What are your wages? ( How much do you earn?)

+ My wages are rather high. I'm a qualified operator of the electronic computers.

- Please tell me, what do you do after working hours? Have you time for the cinema, theatre or concerts?

+ Of course, I have. I go to the theatre on my days off. I like music very much and I often go to concerts. Be­sides I study English.

- Do you know English well already?

+ No, I can't say that I do. But I try to study it regularly and I hope that soon I shall be able to speak English well.

^ Exercise 5. Divide the following words into three groups: nouns, verbs, adjectives.
Instruction, software, accept, permanent, hardware, memory, process, feed, integrated, digital, device, electronic, mechanical, print, store, storage, configuration, keyboard, count, input, central, influential, physical, disk drive.

^ Exercise 6. Translate the following groups of words.
To solve the problem, to keep inside the computer, the result of the processing, to feed into the computer's memory, to run the program, to see the results on the screen, to make up a computer system, to execute program instructions, to coordinate the activities, inside the computer's memory, to perform calculations, information in the form of data, programs known as software, mechanical parts known as hardware, mechanical way of dividing, the first calculating device.

Exercise 7. Make up all possible questions to the sentences.

  1. He graduated from the University 2 years ago.

  2. He was born in our town in 1985.

  3. They will have much work to do next month.

  4. There are three departments at our college.

  5. Mathematics was my favourite subject at school.

  6. The participants of this conference will arrive tomorrow morning.

  7. Peripherals include storage devices and input/output devices.

  8. Computers accept data and give the results of the processing.

Exercise 8. Write these sentences in the Past and Future Indefinite.

  1. They build a new hostel each years.

  2. The students prepare their lessons in the library.

  3. We have dinner at our student's canteen.

  4. We have a seminar in Mathematics once a week.

  5. My friend works in the computing centre.

  6. We play football every Sunday.

  7. Our teacher asks us many questions at the lesson.



Ex. Put the Infinitives in the Simple, Progressive or Perfect Tenses in the Active Voice. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

  1. A computer (to store) information which it (to receive).

  2. When I (to come) into the room, my friend (to compile) a program.

  1. When you (to come) into the laboratory, I (to show) you how to calculate by using a computer.

  2. You (to solve) this algebraic problem and I (to compare) my results with yours.

  3. When a computer (to do) reasonable operations it (to compute) or (to calculate).

  1. The electronic computer just (to perform) its calculations.

  2. They (to do) many operations on the computer.

  3. When you come back, he (to perform) computing operations.

  1. Owing to the computer we (to process) a great deal of informa­tion.

10. They (to write) a program for the computer by the end of the
month.


11. I (to compile) a program for two hours when the lecturer came into the laboratory.

  1. This equation seems to have no solution. We (to perform) cal­culations for an hour.

  2. She (to discuss) some questions with her instructor now.

Before the design (to be) ready, they (to work) on it for 3 hours.

Ex. 2. Choose the correct form of the verb:

1.They (explained, were explained) how to solve this problem on
the computer.


2.The sequence of reasonable operations (has been performed, has
performed) by the computer.


3. These digits (are multiplied, multiply) easily.

  1. The experiments on the new computer (were carrying out, were being carried out) during the whole month.

  2. The sequence of reasonable operations (is carrying out, is being carried out) by this computer now.

6. Many books on computers (had been translated, had translated) into Ukrainian by the end of the last year.

7. By means of instruction any computer (will tell, will be told) what operations to perform.

8. Your scientific article 'An educated man and the computer' (will have been published, will publish) by the end of the year.

Ex. 3. Find the sentences in which the verbs 'to have' and 'to be' are translated as мати, бути повинним:

1.The general purpose of this unit is to perform different arith-Kgietic operations.

2. The students of our Institute have at their disposal the computing centre.

3. This personal computer has been constructed at our lab.

4. The lecture was to begin at 9 o'clock.

  1. You have to remember the names of the scientists who have con­tributed to the designing of computers.

  2. The results of the experiment have carefully been checked up today.

  3. For a digital computer information has to be in the form of di­gits or numbers.


Ex. 4. Say what you can do with the help of the computer. Use the following expressions:

to take in information or data, to perform a sequence of reasonable operations, to put out information, to store information, to display the answers, to keep records of financial affairs, to do weather fore­casting, to process data.

Ex. 5. Insert modal verbs can, may, must, should or their equiva­lents in the necessary tense-form:

  1. Information or data ... be stored in the computer's memory or storage.

  2. An analogue computer ... to calculate by using physical ana­logues of numerical measurements.

  3. The first automatic computers ... operate at a low speed.

  4. Your scientific article on computers ... be published at our Institute.

  5. My friend was happy when at last he ... work at the computing centre.

  6. Our students... to visit the computing centre to see the operation of computers.

  7. You ... know the difference between the digital and analogue computers.

  8. We ... help him to solve the problem by a personal computer.

  9. Every student of our speciality ... to know what a hybrid com-

puter is.

Ex. 6. Put questions to the words in bold type:

  1. Hardware is useless without software which is computer inst­ructions and programs.

  2. A computer stores information which it receives.

  3. When our professor was speaking on the history of computers» he mentioned Charles Babbage and his great inventions.

  4. The mathematical programme for the first computer had been compiled by Lord Byron's daughter.

  5. The first programmed computer which operated successfully was built in 1939.

  6. Computers have already penetrated almost into all spheres o.(| modern economy.


Ex. Translate into English.

1. Деякі компанії не виробляють і не продають комп'ютери.,
а здають їх в оренду.


  1. Програміст програмує дані в комп'ютер.

  2. У бізнесі комп'ютер використовують для обробки даних.

  3. Програмне забезпечення дуже дороге.




  1. Комп'ютер допомагає приймати рішення на високому адмі­ністративному рівні.

  2. Комп'ютер використовується для здійснення багатьох адмі­ністративних функцій, підготовки відомостей, інвентаризаційно­го контролю.

Ех. 12. a) Make a speech in favour of modern electronic equip­ment (personal computers, electronic printing aids). Why can't a modern enterprise do without them?

b) You are the Head of a firm producing computers. Advertise your product.


Ex.16. Put who, that, which, or preposition, + which in the fol­lowing sentences, where necessary

1. Thank you for your letter you enquired about

our products.

2. Your statement of account, we received yester-
day, appears to have a number of errors , refer to


items we did not order.

3.1 would like to speak to Mr. Newland, phoned

me earlier, concerning our account, he says

it has not been cleared.

4. The cheque you sent us has now

been cleared.

5. Would you please clear your balance

has been outstanding since February.

6. You need to contact the person deals with

foreign transactions.
Ex. W. Translate into English.

  1. Електроніка є основою сучасної автоматики.

  2. Кібернетика тісно пов'язана з іншими галузями знань.




  1. ЕОМ використовується в промисловості, медицині, науково-дослідній роботі, в банках і під час прогнозування погоди.

  2. Августа Ада Байрон — дочка славнозвісного поета. Вона зро­била математичне забезпечення для першого комп'ютера. У шіст­надцятирічному віці вона мала глибокі знання з математики.

  3. ЕОМ відкриває великі перспективи для людської творчості, про які могли говорити хіба що фантасти.

  4. Цифрова обчислювальна машина за один день може викона­ти такий обсяг роботи, з яким команда обчислювачів не впораєть­ся й за рік.



Ex. 18. Give synonyms to the words in bold type:

  1. Computer penetrates almost into all spheres of our modern so­ciety.

  2. Basic is considered to be one of the easiest programming lan­guages to learn.

3. A digital computer computes by using numbers or digits.

4. A hybrid computer is a machine, which combines some of the
properties of digital and analogue computers.


5. Computer is a data storage system created by man.

6. Computer is a million times faster than humans in performing
computing operations.

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