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III Read and translate the following text:
The work of a designer

Costume designers create the look of each character by designing clothes and accessories the actors will wear in performance. Depending on their style and complexity, costumes may be made, bought, revamped out of existing stock or rented. Their designs need to reflect faithfully the personalities of the characters in the script. The shapes, colours and textures that a costume designer chooses make an immediate and powerful visual statement to the audience. Creative collaboration among the costume designer, the director, the set and lighting designers ensures that the costumes are smoothly integrated into the production as a whole.

Stage costumes can provide audiences with information about a character's occupation, social status, gender, age, sense of style and tendencies towards conformity or individualism. As well costumes can:

- reinforce the mood and style of the production

- distinguish between major and minor characters

- suggest relationships between characters

- change an actor's appearance

- suggest changes in character development and age

- be objects of beauty in their own right.

Costume designs also need to include any accessories such as canes, hats, gloves, shoes, jewelry or masks. These costume props add a great deal of visual interest to the overall costume design. They are often the items that truly distinguish one character from another.

Costume designers begin their work by reading the script to be produced. If the production is set in a specific historical era the fashions of this period will need to be researched. To stimulate the flow of ideas at the first meeting with the director and the design team (set, costume, lighting and sound designers) the costume designer may present a few rough costume sketches. This is also an appropriate time to check with the director on the exact number of characters requiring costumes. It is the costume designer's responsibility to draw up the costume plot. The costume plot is a list or chart that shows which characters appear in each scene, what they are wearing and their overall movement throughout the play. This helps track the specific costume needs of every character. It can also identify any potential costume challenges, such as very quick changes between scenes. When the director and production team have approved the costume designer's preliminary sketches she or he can draw up the final costume designs. The final designs are done in full colour. They show the style, silhouette, textures, accessories and unique features of each costume. Once the show opens the designer's work is essentially complete. Now it's normally for the job of a wardrobe assistant to be sure that every aspect of the production runs just as the designer intended.
IV Answer the questions:

1. What is the essence of costume designer’s work?

2. What is the main task of a stage costume?

3. What can we get to know from the costume?

4. How do costume props help the overall design?

5. How does costume designer’s work start?

6. What is a costume plot?

7. What do final designs look?
V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. … such as hats, masks, gloves, etc. are very important for costume design.

2. Before starting his work a designer should know the number of … .

3. … shows the overall movement throughout the play.

4. When the show opens the work of … starts.
VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

вистава, попередній, складність, брати напрокат, забезпечувати, зовнішній вигляд, загальний, сценарій, придатний, попередній, інвентар.
^ VII Make up sentences with the terms:

costume designer, costume props, rough sketch, costume plot, lighting designer, visual statement, accessories.
VIII Give definitions to the words:

jewelry, sketch, accessory, to revamp, visual, to distinguish, fashion.
IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Художник по костюмам працює разом з художником-декоратором, художником освітлення, групою акторів та режисером.

2. Аксесуари допомагають створити завершений образ акторів.

3. Художник по костюмам повинен передбачити всі можливі проблеми з костюмом.

4. З костюму ми можемо дізнатися про вік, соціальний статус, професію та смак героя.

5. Робота художника по костюмам починається з вивчення сценарію.

6. Після того як режисер схвалить попередні ескізи костюмів, художник по костюмам може створювати остаточний дизайн.

7. Остаточний дизайн відображає стиль, силует, аксесуари та особливості кожного костюму.
X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

costume designer, rough sketch, accessory, creative collaboration, to provide, final design, costume challenges, performance, character, to integrate, to reflect, costume props, costume plot.

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. niche – ніша

2. chainmail – кольчуга

3. rivet – зáклепка

4. pliers – шипці

5. audacity – сміливість

6. “Chambre Syndicale” – франц. профспілка підприємців

7. freelance – позаштатний

8. coup – вдалий хід

9. to succumb – піддаватися

10. mauve – рожево-бузковий
II Read the text and define the main idea of it:
Paco Rabanne

‘Don’t seduce, shock’ was the motto of fashion designer Paco Rabanne. He radically broke with the past which Dior had so successfully revived. For Rabanne the future meant brand new materials.

He found his niche when he began designing plastic jewelry. His next step led to independence: in February 1966 Rabanne showed 12 ‘unwearable dresses’ made of plastic disks and in September he presented his first garments made of aluminum with leather and ostrich feather trimming.

In the 1960s his futuristic metal dresses became to show business celebrities what white satin dresses had been to the Hollywood sirens of the 1930s.

Every modern girl wore Paco Rabanne’s chainmail, which was stitched not with thread and needle but with hooks, rivets and pliers.

Paco Rabanne never gave up his experiments with unusual materials.

Pierre Cardin

Following Dior’s triumphant success with the New Look which overnight reestablished Paris as the fashion capital of the world, the city was gripped by gold fever. In 1951 Pierre Cardin showed his first collection. Since he had little starting capital, the collection was restricted to 50 coats and suits. His designs were an overwhelming success precisely because Cardin had avoided any imitation of the two most influential fashion geniuses of the period, Dior and Balenciaga.

Cardin, a marketing genius, is known as the fashion designer with the greatest number of licenses worldwide. Yet he is also one of the most innovative of couturiers. In 1958 he designed the first-ever unisex collection, which united men and women in a joint lifestyle statement.

He had the audacity to be the first couturier ever to produce a ready-made collection. As a result he was expelled by the strict “Chambre Syndicale”. But even the latter soon had to accept that nothing would stop the American ready-to-wear concept from invading the motherland of fashion, and it was swiftly named prêt-à-porter, thus allowing couturiers to choose whether they wished to use this avenue to make money – and allowing Cardin to back into the fold.

Karl Lagerfeld

The conclusions which Karl Lagerfeld drew in the 1960s from the signs of the times were quite different from those drawn by Courrèges, Cardin and others. While Lagerfeld's contemporaries saw the future in the space-age look, he put his money on the replacement of couture by ready-to-wear. And, instead of taking on the burden of his own couture house, he worked as a freelance designer.

He first found fame at Chloé where he started work in 1963, remaining there for 20 years.

In 1965 he began to design fur collections for the Fendi sisters in Rome and today he іs responsible for all their collections. However his greatest coup has been the revitalization оf the legendary Chanel style.

Emanuel Ungaro

Emanuel Ungaro began his career as an independent couturier. His early collections featured severe combinations of blazer and shorts.

He soon developed his own style which was based on a bold mix of colours and patterns. Flowers on checks or stripes with large polka dots in bright colours are typical of Ungaro, who never succumbed to the pessimistic tendencies which took hold of some other designers.

Ungaro does not sketch his designs but works directly with the fabric on the body of a model – for up to 12 hours a day, always with the inspiration of classical music.

The Italian Ferragamo group took over the running of his business in 1996, while keeping Ungaro as the undisputed creative head of the organization. He returned to his beginnings for the 1999 haute couture show when he showed a modernized version of hippie fashion: long, frilly, floral skirts with cropped tops in matte mauve and beaded, chiffon pants worn with feather-light jackets or fur-trimmed stoles.
III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.
V Questions for discussion:

1. What materials does Paco Rabanne use in his work?

2. What is the most famous Rabanne’s garment?

3. When did Pierre Cardin show his first collection?

4. What did his collection consist of?

5. Who designed the first unisex collection?

6. What does prêt-à-porter mean?

7. Did Karl Lagerfeld work as an independent designer?

8. Who was a revitalizer of Chanel style?

9. What are the features of Emanuel Ungaro style?

10. How does Ungaro create his designs?
VI Render the text in brief in a written form.
TEXT C
I Mind the following words:

1. piecemeal – частково

2. director – режисер

3. actor-manager – актор-антрепренер

4. to unionize – об’єднатися у профспілку

5. touring – гастролі

6. cohesive – цільний
II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

1. The profession of a costume designer emerged in the Middle Ages.

2. Before the twentieth century actors travelled with their own costumes.

3. The first union members were costume designers.

4. In 1836 costume designers were recognized as a separate specialty.

5. Film designers appeared just for making films more cohesive.
III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. How did the speciality of a costume designer appear?

2. What were the reasons for film designers to emerge?

Unit 7

^ THEATRICAL COSTUME

Text A
I Listen and learn the following words

  1. foundations – основи

  2. revelry – веселощі

  3. conventions – звичаї

  4. high-soled shoes – взуття на високій підошві

  5. ecclesiastical – церковний

  6. scenery – декорації

  7. contemporary – сучасний, повсякденний

  8. breastplate – нагрудний знак

  9. draperies – драпіроване вбрання

  10. character – персонаж


II Read and learn the following phrases

  1. character recognition- впізнавання персонажу

  2. mystery plays – вистава з релігійним змістом

  3. historical accuracy – історична точність

  4. to reflect on the stage – відображати на сцені

  5. authentic costume – аутентичний костюм


III Read and translate the following text:
Theatrical costume

Western theater tradition has its foundations in the Greek celebrations honouring Dionysus, the god of wine and revelry. The traditional costume for Greek tragedy consisted of a long tunic, a stylized mask for instant character recognition, and a pair of high-soled shoes. All of these garments were exclusively for theatrical use. One cannot act the hero in everyday wear. Short tunics, much like those worn by ordinary citizens, were thought appropriate to comedy.

The costume conventions established by the Greeks essentially remained the same until the fall of the Roman Empire, when Western theatre disappeared for eight hundred years.

From the fifth century mystery plays, which depicted the lives of the saints, were increasingly performed both inside the church and on church grounds. Then they moved to the market squares. Costumes worn in the early religious dramas were ecclesiastical garments.

It was during the Renaissance that scenery and costume came to be even more important than the text. Costumes depicted gods, animals, and mythological creatures, as well as such emotions as hope and joy.

Costumes for Shakespeare's plays were a mixture of various periods. Most parts were performed in contemporary dress either owned by the actor or provided by the theater. A helmet or breastplate indicated a soldier. Fairies and nymphs might wear classical draperies.

The same principles were applied to costume in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries. Most actors and especially actresses dressed as fashionably as possible. A turban indicated an Eastern character. A helmet signified a soldier. Performers provided their own wardrobe with the exception of special items provided by the theater.

The period between the 1770s and the 1870s saw a drive toward historical accuracy in costume design. Travelling became relatively easier, written reports and exhibitions increased people's knowledge of other cultures. They wanted what they saw and read about to be reflected on the stage.

Theaters used every available resource to create authentic costumes for actors. This new realistic style greatly influenced Paris and Moscow theaters.

Nowadays, theatrical costumes are designed to support the script. If realism or historicism is central to the text, the costumes will accurately reflect the clothing appropriate to the period or to the environment. Costumes for the theater have special requirements in fit, colour and effect. Garments must allow the performer's body to move easily and be well made. For example, costumes of professional actors and dancers often receive hard wear. Constant use or vigorous movement for dancers, circus clowns, and acrobats can put a strain on garments, thus requiring sturdy fabrics and specific construction. When many viewers see costumes from afar, colours or other aspects of design may be exaggerated for effect. Some colours, therefore, may be more bold or brilliant than choices for everyday dress. Such choices depend on the interpretation of the costume designer in planning the outfit for each performer's individual role and for the interaction among the performers.
IV Answer the questions

  1. What was the traditional costume for Greek tragedy?

  2. When did the costume and scenery come to be even more important than the text?

  3. What did costumes depict during the Renaissance?

  4. Could you describe the costumes for Shakespeare’s plays?

  5. When did realistic style become popular?

  6. What did actors and actresses wear in the 17th and 18th centuries?

  7. Are modern theatrical costumes designed to support the script?

  8. What are special requirements for theatrical costumes?

  9. How should colours be used in costumes for actors and dancers?

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